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This study was tasked with the purpose of collecting information describing the teleportation of material objects, providing a description of

teleportation as it occurs in physics, its theoretical and experimental status, and a projection of potential applications. The study also consisted

of a search for teleportation phenomena occurring naturally or under laboratory conditions that can be assembled into a model describing the

conditions required to accomplish the transfer of objects. This included a review and documentation of quantum teleportation, its theoretical

basis, technological development, and its potential applications. The characteristics of teleportation were defined and physical theories were

evaluated in terms of their ability to completely describe the phenomena. Contemporary physics, as well as theories that presently challenge the

current physics paradigm were investigated. The author identified and proposed two unique physics models for teleportation that are based on

the manipulation of either the general relativistic spacetime metric or the spacetime vacuum electromagnetic (zero-point fluctuations)

parameters. Naturally occurring anomalous teleportation phenomena that were previously studied by the United States and foreign

governments were also documented in the study and are reviewed in the report. The author proposes an additional model for teleportation that

is based on a combination of the experimental results from the previous government studies and advanced physics concepts. Numerous

recommendations outlining proposals for further theoretical and experimental studies are given in the report. The report also includes an

extensive teleportation bibliography.teleportation; physics, quantum teleportation; teleportation phenomena; anomalous teleportation; teleportation theories;

teleportation experiments; teleportation bibliography

This Special Technical Report presents the results of a subcontracted study performed by Warp Drive

Metrics, Las Vegas, NV, under Contract No. F04611-99-C-0025, for the Air Force Research Laboratory

(AFRL)/Space and Missile Propulsion Division, Propellant Branch (PRSP), Edwards AFB, CA. The Project

Manager for AFRL/PRSP was Dr. Franklin B. Mead, Jr.

This report has been reviewed and is approved for release and distribution in accordance with the

distribution statement on the cover and on the SF Form 298. This report is published in the interest of scientific and

technical information exchange and does not constitute approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings.

_______________________________________ ______________________________________




AEC Average Energy Condition

AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory

AU Astronomical Unit

BBO Beta (β)-Barium Borate

CGS Centimeter-Gram-Second

CIA Central Intelligence Agency

DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DEC Dominant Energy Condition

DIA Defense Intelligence Agency

DNA Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid

DoD Department of Defense

EPR Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen

ESP Extrasensory Perception

eV Electron Volt

FRW Friedmann-Robertson-Walker

FTL Faster-Than-Light

IBM International Business Machines

INSCOM Intelligence and Security Command

IR Infrared

MeV Mega-Electron Volt

MKS Meter-Kilogram-Second

NEC Null Energy Condition

NLP Neuro-Linguistic Programming

NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

NSA National Security Agency

PK Psychokinesis

PPN Parameterized Post-Newtonian

PRC Peoples Republic of China

PV-GR Polarizable-Vacuum Representation of General Relativity

QED Quantum Electrodynamics

QISP Quantum Information Science Program

R&D Research and Development

SAIC Science Applications International Corporation

SEC Strong Energy Condition

SRI Stanford Research Institute

USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

UV Ultraviolet

WEC Weak Energy Condition

ZPE Zero-Point Energy

ZPF Zero-Point Fluctuations

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This study would not have been possible without the very generous support of Dr. Frank Mead,

Senior Scientist at the Advanced Concepts Office of the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

Propulsion Directorate at Edwards AFB, CA. Dr. Mead’s collegial collaboration, ready assistance, and

constant encouragement were invaluable to me. Dr. Mead’s professionalism and excellent rapport with

“out-of-the-box” thinkers excites and motivates serious exploration into advanced concepts that push the

envelope of knowledge and discovery. The author owes a very large debt of gratitude and appreciation to

both Dr. David Campbell, Program Manager, ERC, Inc. at AFRL, Edwards AFB, CA, and the ERC, Inc.

staff, for supporting the project contract and for making all the paperwork fuss totally painless. Dr.

Campbell and his staff provided timely assistance when the author needed it, which helped make this

contract project run smoothly.

There are two colleagues who provided important contributions to this study that I wish to

acknowledge. First, I would like to express my sincere thanks and deepest appreciation to my first

longtime mentor and role model, the late Dr. Robert L. Forward. Bob Forward was the first to influence

my interests in interstellar flight and advanced breakthrough physics concepts (i.e., “Future Magic”) when

I first met him at an AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference in Las Vegas while I was in high school (ca.

1978). The direction I took in life from that point forward followed the trail of exploration and discovery

that was blazed by Bob. I will miss him, but I will never forget him. Second, I would like to express my

sincere thanks and appreciation to my longtime friend, colleague and present mentor, Dr. Hal Puthoff,

Institute for Advanced Studies-Austin, for our many discussions on applying his Polarizable VacuumGeneral

Relativity model to a quasi-classical teleportation concept. Hal taught me to expand my mind,

and he encourages me to think outside the box. He also gave me a great deal of valuable insight and

personal knowledge about the Remote Viewing Program. Last, I would like to offer my debt of gratitude

and thanks to my business manager (and spouse), Lindsay K. Davis, for all the hard work she does to

make the business end of Warp Drive Metrics run smoothly.

Eric W. Davis, Ph.D., FBIS

Warp Drive Metrics

Las Vegas, NV

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The Teleportation Physics Study is divided into four phases. Phase I is a review and documentation

of quantum teleportation, its theoretical basis, technological development, and its potential application.

Phase II developed a textbook description of teleportation as it occurs in classical physics, explored its

theoretical and experimental status, and projected its potential applications. Phase III consisted of a

search for teleportation phenomena occurring naturally or under laboratory conditions that can be

assembled into a model describing the conditions required to accomplish the disembodied conveyance of

objects. The characteristics of teleportation were defined, and physical theories were evaluated in terms

of their ability to completely describe the phenomenon. Presently accepted physics theories, as well as

theories that challenge the current physics paradigm were investigated for completeness. The theories

that provide the best chance of explaining teleportation were selected, and experiments with a high chance

of accomplishing teleportation were identified. Phase IV is the final report.

The report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 is an overview of the textbook descriptions for the

various teleportation phenomena that are found in nature, in theoretical physics concepts, and in

experimental laboratory work. Chapter 2 proposes two quasi-classical physics concepts for teleportation:

the first is based on engineering the spacetime metric to induce a traversable wormhole; the second is

based on the polarizable-vacuum-general relativity approach that treats spacetime metric changes in terms

of equivalent changes in the vacuum permittivity and permeability constants. These concepts are

theoretically developed and presented. Promising laboratory experiments were identified and

recommended for further research. Chapter 3 presents the current state-of-art of quantum teleportation

physics, its theoretical basis, technological development, and its applications. Key theoretical,

experimental, and applications breakthroughs were identified, and a series of theoretical and experimental

research programs are proposed to solve technical problems and advance quantum teleportation physics.

Chapter 4 gives an overview of alternative teleportation concepts that challenge the present physics

paradigm. These concepts are based on the existence of parallel universes/spaces and/or extra space

dimensions. The theoretical and experimental work that has been done to develop these concepts is

reviewed, and a recommendation for further research is made. Last, Chapter 5 gives an in-depth

overview of unusual teleportation phenomena that occur naturally and under laboratory conditions. The

teleportation phenomenon discussed in the chapter is based on psychokinesis (PK), which is a category of

psychotronics. The U.S. military-intelligence literature is reviewed, which relates the historical scientific

research performed on PK-teleportation in the U.S., China and the former Soviet Union. The material

discussed in the chapter largely challenges the current physics paradigm; however, extensive controlled

and repeatable laboratory data exists to suggest that PK-teleportation is quite real and that it is

controllable. The report ends with a combined list of references.

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1.1 Introduction

The concept of teleportation was originally developed during the Golden Age of 20th century science

fiction literature by writers in need of a form of instantaneous disembodied transportation technology to

support the plots of their stories. Teleportation has appeared in such SciFi literature classics as Algis

Budry’s Rogue Moon (Gold Medal Books, 1960), A. E. van Vogt’s World of Null-A (Astounding Science

Fiction, August 1945), and George Langelaan’s The Fly (Playboy Magazine, June 1957). The Playboy

Magazine short story led to a cottage industry of popular films decrying the horrors of scientific

technology that exceeded mankind’s wisdom: The Fly (1958), Return of the Fly (1959), Curse of the Fly

(1965), The Fly (a 1986 remake), and The Fly II (1989). The teleportation concept has also appeared in

episodes of popular television SciFi anthology series such as The Twilight Zone and The Outer Limits.

But the most widely recognized pop-culture awareness of the teleportation concept began with the

numerous Star Trek television and theatrical movie series of the past 39 years (beginning in 1964 with the

first TV series pilot episode, The Cage), which are now an international entertainment and product

franchise that was originally spawned by the late genius television writer-producer Gene Roddenberry.

Because of Star Trek everyone in the world is familiar with the “transporter” device, which is used to

teleport personnel and material from starship to starship or from ship to planet and vice versa at the speed

of light. People or inanimate objects would be positioned on the transporter pad and become completely

disintegrated by a beam with their atoms being patterned in a computer buffer and later converted into a

beam that is directed toward the destination, and then reintegrated back into their original form (all

without error!). “Beam me up, Scotty” is a familiar automobile bumper sticker or cry of exasperation that

were popularly adopted from the series.

However, the late Dr. Robert L. Forward (2001) stated that modern hard-core SciFi literature, with

the exception of the ongoing Star Trek franchise, has abandoned using the teleportation concept because

writers believe that it has more to do with the realms of parapsychology/paranormal (a.k.a. psychic) and

imaginative fantasy than with any realm of science. Beginning in the 1980s developments in quantum

theory and general relativity physics have succeeded in pushing the envelope in exploring the reality of

teleportation. A crescendo of scientific and popular literature appearing in the 1990s and as recently as

2003 has raised public awareness of the new technological possibilities offered by teleportation. As for

the psychic aspect of teleportation, it became known to Dr. Forward and myself, along with several

colleagues both inside and outside of government, that anomalous teleportation has been scientifically

investigated and separately documented by the Department of Defense.

It has been recognized that extending the present research in quantum teleportation and developing

alternative forms of teleportation physics would have a high payoff impact on communications and

transportation technologies in the civilian and military sectors. It is the purpose of this study to explore

the physics of teleportation and delineate its characteristics and performances, and to make

recommendations for further studies in support of Air Force Advanced Concepts programs.

1.2 The Definitions of Teleportation

Before proceeding, it is necessary to give a definition for each of the teleportation concepts I have

identified during the course of this study:

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¾ Teleportation – SciFi: the disembodied transport of persons or inanimate objects across space by

advanced (futuristic) technological means (adapted from Vaidman, 2001). We will call this sfTeleportation,

which will not be considered further in this study.

¾ Teleportation – psychic: the conveyance of persons or inanimate objects by psychic means. We

will call this p-Teleportation.

¾ Teleportation – engineering the vacuum or spacetime metric: the conveyance of persons or

inanimate objects across space by altering the properties of the spacetime vacuum, or by altering

the spacetime metric (geometry). We will call this vm-Teleportation.

¾ Teleportation – quantum entanglement: the disembodied transport of the quantum state of a

system and its correlations across space to another system, where system refers to any single or

collective particles of matter or energy such as baryons (protons, neutrons, etc.), leptons

(electrons, etc.), photons, atoms, ions, etc. We will call this q-Teleportation.

¾ Teleportation – exotic: the conveyance of persons or inanimate objects by transport through extra

space dimensions or parallel universes. We will call this e-Teleportation.

We will examine each of these in detail in the following chapters and determine whether any of the above

teleportation concepts encompass the instantaneous and or disembodied conveyance of objects through


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2.1 Engineering the Spacetime Metric

A comprehensive literature search for vm-Teleportation within the genre of spacetime metric

engineering yielded no results. No one in the general relativity community has thought to apply the

Einstein field equation to determine whether there are solutions compatible with the concept of

teleportation. Therefore, I will offer two solutions that I believe will satisfy the definition of vmTeleportation.

The first solution can be found from the class of traversable wormholes giving rise to what

I call a true “stargate.” A stargate is essentially a wormhole with a flat-face shape for the throat as

opposed to the spherical-shaped throat of the Morris and Thorne (1988) traversable wormhole, which was

derived from a spherically symmetric Lorentzian spacetime metric that prescribes the wormhole geometry

(see also, Visser, 1995 for a complete review of traversable Lorentzian wormholes):

2 2() 2 2 1 2 2 2 [1 ( ) ] r ds e c dt b r r dr r d φ − =− + − + Ω (2.1),

where by inspection we can write the traversable wormhole metric tensor in the form


using standard spherical coordinates, where c is the speed of light, α,β ≡ (0 = t, 1 = r, 2 = θ, 3 = ϕ) are the

time and space coordinate indices (-∞ < t < ∞; r: 2πr = circumference; 0 ≤ θ ≤ π; 0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 2π), dΩ2

= dθ2




, φ(r) is the freely specifiable redshift function that defines the proper time lapse through the

wormhole throat, and b(r) is the freely specifiable shape function that defines the wormhole throat’s

spatial (hypersurface) geometry. Such spacetimes are asymptotically flat. The Einstein field equation

requires that a localized source of matter-energy be specified in order to determine the geometry that the

source induces on the local spacetime. We can also work the Einstein equation backwards by specifying

the local geometry in advance and then calculate the matter-energy source required to induce the desired

geometry. The Einstein field equation thus relates the spacetime geometry terms comprised of the

components of the metric tensor and their derivatives (a.k.a. the Einstein tensor) to the local matterenergy

source terms comprised of the energy and stress-tension densities (a.k.a. the stress-energy tensor).

The flat-face wormhole or stargate is derived in the following section.

2.1.1 Wormhole Thin Shell Formalism

The flat-face traversable wormhole solution is derived from the thin shell (a.k.a. junction condition or

surface layer) formalism of the Einstein equations (Visser, 1989; see also, Misner, Thorne and Wheeler,

1973). We adapt Visser’s (1989) development in the following discussion. The procedure is to take two

copies of flat Minkowski space and remove from each identical regions of the form Ω × ℜ, where Ω is a

three-dimensional compact spacelike hypersurface and ℜ is a timelike straight line (time axis). Then

identify these two incomplete spacetimes along the timelike boundaries ∂Ω × ℜ. The resulting spacetime

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is geodesically complete and possesses two asymptotically flat regions connected by a wormhole. The

throat of the wormhole is just the junction ∂Ω (a two-dimensional space-like hypersurface) at which the

two original Minkowski spaces are identified (see Figures 1 and 2).

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Figure 1. Diagram of a Simultaneous View of Two Remote Compact Regions

(Ω1 and Ω2) of Minkowski Space Used to Create the Wormhole Throat ∂Ω,

Where Time is Suppressed in This Representation (adapted from Bennett et al., 1995)

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Figure 2. The Same Diagram as in Figure 1 Except as Viewed by an Observer

Sitting in Region Ω1 Who Looks Through the Wormhole Throat ∂Ω and

Sees Remote Region Ω2 (Dotted Area Inside the Circle) on the Other Side

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The resulting spacetime is everywhere Riemann-flat except possibly at the throat. Also, the stressenergy

tensor in this spacetime is concentrated at the throat with a δ-function singularity there. This is a

consequence of the fact that the spacetime metric at the throat is continuous but not differentiable, while

the connection is discontinuous; thus causing the Riemann curvature to possess a δ-function singularity

(causing undesirable gravitational tidal forces) there. The magnitude of this δ-function singularity can be

calculated in terms of the second fundamental form on both sides of the throat, which we presume to be

generated by a localized thin shell of matter-energy. The second fundamental form represents the

extrinsic curvature of the ∂Ω hypersurface (i.e., the wormhole throat), telling how it is curved with respect

to the enveloping four-dimensional spacetime. The form of the geometry is simple, so the second

fundamental form at the throat is calculated to be (McConnell, 1957):


where i,j = 0,1,2 and Ki



is the second fundamental form. The full 4×4 matrix Kα

β has been reduced to

3×3 form, as above, for computational convenience because the thin shell (or hypersurface) is essentially

a two-surface embedded in three-space. The overall ± sign in equation (2.3) comes from the fact that a

unit normal points outward from one side of the surface and points inward on the other side. We hereafter

drop the ± sign for the sake of brevity in notation. The quantities κ0, κ1, and κ2 measure the extrinsic

curvature of the thin shell of local matter-energy (i.e., the stuff that induces the wormhole throat

geometry). Since the wormhole throat is a space-like hypersurface, we can exclude time-like

hypersurfaces and their components in the calculations. Therefore we set κ0 = 0 in equation (2.3) because

it is the time-like extrinsic curvature for the time-like hypersurface of the thin shell of matter-energy. As

seen in equation (2.3) κ1 and κ2 are simply related to the two principal radii of curvature ρ1 and ρ2

(defined to be the eigenvalues of Ki

  1. j) of the two-dimensional spacelike hypersurface ∂Ω (see Figure 3). It

should be noted that a convex surface has positive radii of curvature, while a concave surface has negative

radii of curvature.

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Figure 3. A Thin Shell of (Localized) Matter-Energy, or Rather the Two-Dimensional

Spacelike Hypersurface ∂Ω (via (2.3)), Possessing the Two Principal Radii of Curvature ρ1 and ρ2

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It is a standard result of the thin shell or junction condition formalism that the Einstein field equation

may be cast in terms of the surface stress-energy tensor Si

j of the thin matter-energy shell localized in ∂Ω

(note: we are exploiting the symmetry of the wormhole with respect to interchange of the two flat regions

Ω1 and Ω2):

( )



i i ik

j j jk

c S KK



π =− − (2.4),

where G is Newton’s gravitational constant and δi

j is the (three-dimensional) unit matrix. Kk

k is the trace


Substituting (2.3) and (2.6) into (2.4) gives (after simplification):


The thin matter-energy shell’s surface stress-energy tensor may be interpreted in terms of the surface

energy density σ and principal surface tensions ϑ1 and ϑ2:


Thus we arrive at the Einstein field equation by equating (2.8) and (2.7) and multiplying both sides by –1:


These are the Einstein equations. Equations (2.10a-c) imply that (for ∂Ω convex) we are dealing with

negative surface energy density and negative surface tensions. This result is in fact the primary matterenergy

requirement for traversable wormholes, as was proved by Morris and Thorne (1988), and later by

Visser (1995), within the paradigm of classical Einstein general relativity. The negative surface tension

(= positive outward pressure, a.k.a. gravitational repulsion or antigravity) is needed to keep the throat

open and stable against collapse. The reader should not be alarmed at this result. Negative energies and

negative stress-tensions are an acceptable result both mathematically and physically, and they manifest

gravitational repulsion (antigravity!) in and around the wormhole throat. One only needs to understand

what it means for stress-energy to be negative within the proper context. In general relativity the term

“exotic” is used in place of “negative.” The effects of negative energy have been produced in the

laboratory (the Casimir Effect is one example). In short, negative energy arises from Heisenberg’s

quantum uncertainty principle, which requires that the energy density of any electromagnetic, magnetic,

electric or other fields must fluctuate randomly. Even in a vacuum, where the average energy density is

zero, the energy density fluctuates. This means that the quantum vacuum can never remain truly empty in

the classical sense of the term. The quantum picture of the vacuum is that of a turbulent plenum of virtual

(i.e., energy non-conserving) particle pairs that spontaneously pop in and out of existence. The notion of

“zero energy” in quantum theory corresponds to the vacuum being filled with such fluctuations going on.

This issue is further elaborated on and clarified in greater detail in Appendix A. We will also revisit this

in Section 2.2. Finally, it should be noted that for the analysis in this section we assumed an ultrastatic

wormhole [i.e., g00 ≡ 1 ⇒ φ(r) = 0 in equation (2.1)] with the “exotic” matter-energy confined to a thin

layer, and we dispensed with the assumption of spherical symmetry.

We can now build a wormhole-stargate and affect vm-Teleportation such that a traveler stepping into

the throat encounters no exotic matter-energy there. This will require that our wormhole be flat shaped.

To make the wormhole flat requires that we choose the throat ∂Ω to have at least one flat face (picture the

thin shell in Figure 3 becoming a flat shell). On that face the two principal radii of curvature become ρ1 =

ρ2 = ∞ as required by standard geometry. Substituting this into equations (2.10a-c) gives

1 2 σϑ ϑ === 0 (2.11),



which is a remarkable result. A further consequence of this is that now Ki

j = 0, thus making the Riemann

curvature and stress-energy tensors (Riemann: Rα

β ~ Kα

β; stress-energy: Tα

β ~ Kα

β) at the throat become

zero such that the associated δ-function singularities disappear there. This means that a traveler

encountering and going through such a wormhole will feel no tidal gravitational forces and see no exotic

matter-energy (that threads the throat). A traveler stepping through the throat will simply be teleported

into the other remote spacetime region or another universe (note: the Einstein equation does not fix the

spacetime topology, so it is possible that wormholes are inter-universe as well as intra-universe tunnels).

We construct such a teleportation stargate by generating a thin shell or surface layer of “exotic” matterenergy

much like a thin film of soap stretched across a loop of wire.

2.1.2 “Exotic” Matter-Energy Requirements

Now we have to estimate the amount of negative (or exotic) mass-energy that will be needed to

generate and hold open a vm-Teleportation wormhole. A simple formula originally due to Visser (1995)

for short-throat wormholes using the thin shell formalism gives:


27 (1.3469 10 )1

(0.709 )1






r c M


r x kg


r M


= −

= −

= −


where Mwh is the mass required to build the wormhole, rthroat is a suitable measure of the linear dimension

(radius) of the throat, and MJupiter is the mass of the planet Jupiter (1.90×1027 kg). Equation (2.12)

demonstrates that a mass of –0.709 MJupiter (or –1.3469×1027 kg) will be required to build a wormhole 1

meter in size. As the wormhole size increases the mass requirement grows negative-large, and vice versa

as the wormhole size decreases. After being alarmed by the magnitude of this, one should note that Mwh

is not the total mass of the wormhole as seen by observers at remote distances. The non-linearity of the

Einstein field equations dictates that the total mass is zero (actually, the total net mass being positive,

negative or zero in the Newtonian approximation depending on the details of the negative energy

configuration constituting the wormhole system). And finally, Visser et al. (2003) have demonstrated the

existence of spacetime geometries containing traversable wormholes that are supported by arbitrarily

small quantities of exotic matter-energy, and they proved that this was a general result. In Section 2.3 we

will discuss how or whether we can create such a wormhole in the laboratory.

2.2 Engineering the Vacuum

Engineering the spacetime vacuum provides a second solution that also satisfies the definition of vmTeleportation.

The concept of “engineering the vacuum” was first introduced to the physics community

by Lee (1988). Lee stated:

“The experimental method to alter the properties of the vacuum may be called vacuum engineering…If

indeed we are able to alter the vacuum, then we may encounter some new phenomena, totally


This new concept is based on the now-accepted fact that the vacuum is characterized by physical

parameters and structure that constitutes an energetic medium which pervades the entire extent of the

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universe. We note here the two most important defining properties of the vacuum in this regard (Puthoff

et al., 2002):

‰ Within the context of quantum field theory the vacuum is the seat of all energetic particle and

field fluctuations.

‰ Within the context of general relativity theory the vacuum is the seat of a spacetime structure (or

metric) that encodes the distribution of matter and energy.

We begin our look into this concept by examining the propagation of light through space. We know

from quantum field theory that light propagating through space interacts with the vacuum quantum fields

(a.k.a. vacuum quantum field fluctuations). The observable properties of light, including the speed of

light, are determined by these interactions. Vacuum quantum interactions with light lead to an effect on

the speed of light that is due to the absorption of photons (by the vacuum) to form virtual electronpositron

pairs followed by the quick re-emission (from the vacuum) of the photon (see Figure 4). The

virtual particle pairs are very short lived because of the large mismatch between the energy of a photon

and the rest mass-energy of the particle pair. A key point is that this process makes a contribution to the

observed vacuum permittivity ε0 (and permeability µ0) constant and, therefore, to the speed of light c [c =



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Figure 4. A Schematic of Vacuum Quantum Field Fluctuations (a.k.a. Vacuum

Zero Point Field Fluctuations) Involved in the “Light-by-Light” Scattering

Process That Affects the Speed of Light (from Chown, 1990)

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The role of virtual particle pairs in determining the ε0 (µ0) of the vacuum is analogous to that of

atoms/molecules in determining the relative permittivity ε (and µ) of a dielectric material. We know that

the absorption/re-emission of photons by atoms/molecules in a transparent medium (note: there are no

strongly absorbing resonances, so the atoms/molecules remain in their excited states for a very short time

before re-emitting photons) is responsible for the refractive index of the medium, which results in the

reduction of the speed of light for photons propagating through the medium. This absorption/re-emission

process is also known in physics as a scattering process. We know from experiment that a change in the

medium leads to a change in ε (µ), thus resulting in a change of the refractive index. The key point

arising from this analogy is that a modification of the vacuum produces a change in ε0 (µ0) resulting in a

subsequent change in c, and hence, a corresponding change in the vacuum refraction index.

Scharnhorst (1990) and Latorre et al. (1995) have since proved that the suppression of light scattering

by virtual particle pairs (a.k.a. coherent light-by-light scattering) in the vacuum causes an increase in the

speed of light accompanied by a decrease in the vacuum refraction index. This very unique effect is

accomplished in a Casimir Effect capacitor cavity (or waveguide) whereby the vacuum quantum field

fluctuations (a.k.a. zero-point fluctuations or ZPF) inside have been modified (becoming anisotropic and

non-translational invariant) to satisfy the electromagnetic boundary conditions imposed by the presence of

the capacitor plates (or waveguide walls). The principal result of this modification is the removal of the

electromagnetic zero-point energy (ZPE) due to the suppression of vacuum ZPE modes with wavelengths

longer than the cavity/waveguide cutoff (λ0 = 2d, where d = plate separation; see Figure 5). This removal

of free space vacuum ZPE modes suppresses the scattering of light by virtual particle pairs, thus

producing the speed of light increase (and corresponding decrease in the vacuum refraction index). We

know from standard optical physics and quantum electrodynamics (QED) that the optical phase and group

velocities can exceed c under certain physical conditions, but dispersion always ensures that the signal

velocity is ≤ c. But recent QED calculations (see, Scharnhorst, 1990 and Latorre et al., 1995) have

proved that in the Casimir Effect system, the dispersive effects are much weaker still than those

associated with the increase in c so that the phase, group and signal velocities will therefore all increase

by the same amount. Note that, in general, no dispersion shows up in all of the modified vacuum effects

examined by investigators.

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Figure 5. A Schematic of the Casimir Effect Cavity/Waveguide (from Chown, 1990)

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Examples demonstrating the increase in light speed (decrease in vacuum refraction index) via the

Casimir Effect vacuum and other modified vacuum effects, as well as those effects producing a decrease

in light speed (increase in vacuum refraction index), are described as follows. The vacuum modification

effect on the speed of light described in the previous paragraph is (Scharnhorst, 1990):


is the (modified) speed of light propagation perpendicular to the Casimir Effect capacitor

plates, c0 is the speed of light in free space (3×108

m/s in MKS units), me is the electron mass, α is the fine

structure constant (≈ 1/137), e is the electron charge (e


= 4πα in quantum field theory natural units), a is

the plate separation, ħ is Planck’s reduced constant, and ε0 is the vacuum permittivity constant. The

condition ħ = c0 = ε0 = µ0 = 1 stresses that (2.13), and all the equations that follow, are in quantum field

theory natural units. The speed of light and vacuum refraction index measured parallel to the plates is

unchanged from their free space values (c|| = c0, n|| = n0 = 1). The modified vacuum refraction index

measured perpendicular to the plates is (Scharnhorst, 1990):


Equations (2.13) and (2.14) show that in general n⊥ < 1 and c⊥


> c0. But c⊥

* → c0 and n⊥ → 1 when a →

∞ as expected, since we are now allowing all of the vacuum ZPE modes to re-enter the Casimir cavity in

this case.

We now survey the additional examples of modified vacuums which increase/decrease light speed

(from Latorre et al., 1995):

‰ For light (photons) propagating in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) vacuum (i.e., a

homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker gravitational background with Friedmann




is the modified vacuum speed of light, G is Newton’s constant, ρr is the energy density and p is

the pressure of a radiation-dominated universe (p = ρr/3). Here the speed of light is increased.

‰ For light (photons) propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic thermal vacuum:


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where T is the temperature of the vacuum and kB is the Boltzmann constant. Here the speed of light is


‰ For light (photons) propagating in an anisotropic vacuum given by an external constant uniform

magnetic field B:


where the speed of light is decreased in this vacuum for polarizations coplanar (||) with and perpendicular

(⊥) to the plane defined by B and the direction of propagation, and θ is the angle between B and the

direction of propagation. Latorre et al. (1995) calculated the polarization-average of (2.17) to give the

averaged (modified) speed of light in the B-field:


‰ For light (photons) propagating in an anisotropic vacuum given by an external constant uniform

electric field E, the polarization-averaged modified speed of light is:


Here the speed of light is decreased.

Equations (2.16) – (2.19) are the result of vacuum modifications that populate the vacuum with

virtual or real particles that induce coherent (light-by-light) scattering, which reduces the speed of

massless particles. By examining the form of equations (2.13) and (2.15) – (2.19) Latorre et al. (1995)

discovered that the low energy modification of the speed of light is proportional to the ratio of the

modified vacuum energy density (as compared to the standard vacuum energy density, ρvac = 0) over me



with a universal numerical coefficient and the corresponding coupling constants. And a general rule

became apparent from their analysis that is applicable to modified vacua for massive and massless

quantum field theories, for low energy:



> c0 (vacuum refraction index < 1) when the modified vacuum has a lower energy density



< c0 (vacuum refraction index > 1) when the modified vacuum has a higher energy density



= c0 (vacuum refraction index = 1) when the vacuum is free (or un-modified) with ρvac = 0

The first two rules explain the sign of the change of the speed of light. From this rule and the

mathematical commonality between the form of (2.13) and (2.15) – (2.19) Latorre et al. (1995) found a

single unifying expression to replace these equations:


4 00 0


44 1 ( 1) 135 e



c m

ρ α εµ

=− = = = = = (2.20),

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where ρ is the energy density of the modified vacua under consideration such that ρ → ρE ~ E2

for the

electric field vacuum, ρ → ρB ~ B2

for the magnetic field vacuum, and ρ → ρT ~ π2


for the thermal

vacuum. If the vacuum is a FRW gravitational vacuum, then one has to substitute one factor of α in

(2.20) by −me


G and ρ → ρr. Equation (2.13) for the Casimir Effect vacuum studied earlier is recovered

when ρ → ρCasimir = −(π2



Let us recast (2.20) into a more useful form. We subtract one from both sides of (2.20), do some

algebra, and thus define the ratio of the change in the speed of light ∆c in a modified vacuum to the speed

of light in free space c0:


0 00

1 c c c c

c cc

∗ ∗ − ∆ −= ≡


4 00 0


44 ( 1) 135 e



c m

ρ α εµ

∆ =− = = = = = (2.21).

Equations (2.20) and (2.21) are in quantum field theory natural units, which is completely undesirable for

estimating physically measurable values of ∆c/c0. We thus transform or “unwrap” (2.20) and (2.21) back

into MKS or CGS units by making the following substitutions (Puthoff, 2003)

(natural units) (MKS or CGS units)


ρ ρ →


(natural units) (MKS or CGS units) e


m c

m →

= ,

and after some algebra and rearranging we arrive at the final result:




0 00

44 1

135 e e


c mc mc

ρ α

∗   = −    

= (2.22)





0 00


135 e e


c mc mc

ρ α

∆   = −    

= (2.23),

where all quantities are now in MKS or CGS units. We chose the former units so that c0 = 3×108

m/s, ħ =

1.055×10−34 J-s, me = 9.11×10−31 kg, and α = 1/137. Note that the ratio of the modified vacuum energy

density to the electron rest-mass energy has the dimension of (volume)


while the quantity in the bracket

is the cubed Compton wavelength of the electron having the dimension of (volume), and the product of

these is dimensionless.

An excellent example for estimating the magnitude of the change in the speed of light (in a modified

vacuum) is the Casimir Effect vacuum, since Casimir Effect experiments are common and widespread

such that this would be ideal to experimentally test (2.23). We substitute the Casimir vacuum energy

density ρCasimir = −(π2


(in MKS units) into (2.23), do the algebra, insert the MKS values for the

physical constants, and make further simplifications to get:


where a (the plate separation) is in meters. Another useful equation is:


where we make the substitution  for the present case. H. E. Puthoff and the author (Puthoff,

2003) compared the third line in (2.24) with equation (26) in Scharnhorst (1990) and discovered that the

result cited there is in error, because the numerical coefficient is four orders of magnitude too small

(Scharnhorst originally pointed out this error to Forward, 1996).

We now set a = 10−6

m (1 µm) and we get ∆c/c0 ≈ 10−32 and c⊥

* ≈ c0, which is a horrifically small 1

part in 1032 change that we cannot hope to measure at present. But for a = 10−10 m (1 Å) we get ∆c/c0 ≈

10−16 and c⊥

* ≈ c0, which is a 1 part in 1016 change that could be measurable at present or in the very near

future using high precision laser technology. Last, for a = 1.1229×10−14 m (11.229 fm or ≈ 11 times the

nuclear diameter; 1 fm = 10−15 m) we find that ∆c/c0 ≈ 1 and c⊥

* ≈ 2c0. We are not able to do technical

work at nuclear distances at this time; however, that could change as ultrahigh precision measurement

technology continues to evolve. The threshold for the onset of significant changes in light speed occurs

when a < 10−12 m. This result is generally true for the other modified vacua surveyed in (2.15) – (2.19),

since accessible (everyday) values for electric and magnetic field strengths, thermal temperatures and

radiation densities are not large enough to overcome the size of the electron mass to create a measurable

effect. However, there is a class of ultrahigh intensity tabletop lasers that have achieved such extreme

electric and magnetic field strengths and temperatures that it may now be possible to consider using them

to explore vacuum modification effects in the lab. We will return to this theme in a later section.

  • Key Point: As disappointing as the Casimir Effect vacuum (and other modified vacua) results are, it

should be strongly pointed out that special relativity theory says that if in one inertial reference frame an

object travels only one part in 1016 (or even one part in 1032) times faster than c0, then one can find

another reference frame where departure and arrival times of the object are simultaneous, and thus the

velocity is infinite. This is what motivates us to look at a teleportation mechanism based on engineering

of the vacuum.

  • Technical Notes:

¾ Equation (2.15) is interpreted as an increase in the speed of light due to a decrease in the

number of vacuum ZPE modes. However, this effect is totally unrelated to light-by-light

scattering in the vacuum because the gravitational background “squeezes” (as in squeezed

quantum optics states; see Davis, 1999a) the ZPE modes, therefore reducing the vacuum

energy density. We further note that the coefficient of 11 is the same for the gravitational

vacuum as for the other modified vacua examples based on QED. This factor also appears in

the coefficient of the Euler-Poincare characteristic spin-½ contribution to the gravitational

trace anomaly (Birrell and Davies, 1982). It is beyond the scope of this study to consider the

deep connections between quantum field theory and gravitation.

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¾ We have excluded from our survey the Latorre et al. (1995) results pertaining to all other

(high or low energy) modifications of the speed of massless particles. That is because the

other examples invoked different QED theories possessing massless (me = 0), massive and

intrinsic mass scales that introduced complex correction terms (beyond the leading low

energy terms surveyed above) which are mass-related or running mass-related, and they

introduced no new speed modification effects (beyond the low energy electron-positron

virtual pair contributions); or no genuine speed modification was possible (especially for the

massless Quantum Chromodynamic sector involving pseudo-Goldstone particles).

¾ There is ongoing (very noisy) controversy within the physics community over the effects of



> c0 on causality. As this topic is beyond the scope of this study, I will make three points

in this regard: 1) There are no grounds for microcausality violations in accordance with

Drummond and Hathrell (1980). 2) A new definition of causality is in order for FTL (fasterthan-light)

phenomena. 3) Investigators have found that time machines (a.k.a. closed

timelike curves) do not affect Gauss’s theorem, and thus do not affect the derivation of global

conservation laws from differential ones (Friedman et al., 1990). The standard conservation

laws remain globally valid while retaining a natural quasi-local interpretation for spacetimes

possessing time machines (for example, asymptotically flat wormhole spacetimes). Thorne

(1993) states that it may turn out that causality is violated at the macroscopic scale. Even if

causality is obeyed macroscopically, then quantum gravity might offer finite probability

amplitudes for microscopic spacetime histories possessing time machines. Li and Gott

(1998) found a self-consistent vacuum for quantum fields in Misner space (a simple flat space

with closed timelike curves), for which the renormalized stress-energy tensor is regular (in

fact zero) everywhere. This implies that closed timelike curves could exist at least at the

level of semi-classical quantum gravity theory. Therefore, FTL causality paradoxes are just a

reflection of our ignorance or inadequate comprehension of the physics of chronology and


In this section we have shown how “vacuum engineering” can modify the speed of light, and how this

can, in principle, lead to vm-Teleportation. The vacuum modification concepts summarized above lead

us to a formal theory that implements the concept of vacuum engineering within a framework that

parallels general relativity theory. This theory is called the Polarizable-Vacuum Representation of

General Relativity. In the next section we will introduce and summarize this theory.

2.2.1 The Polarizable-Vacuum Representation of General Relativity

The polarizable-vacuum representation of general relativity (a.k.a. PV-GR) treats the vacuum as a

polarizable medium of variable refractive index (Puthoff, 1999a, 2002a, b; Puthoff et al., 2002)

exemplifying the concept of the vacuum modification (or vacuum engineering) effects surveyed and

discussed in the previous section. The PV-GR approach treats spacetime metric changes in terms of

equivalent changes in the vacuum permittivity and permeability constants (ε0 and µ0), essentially along

the lines of the “THεµ” methodology (see Appendix B for a brief description of this) used in comparative

studies of alternative metric theories of gravity (Lightman and Lee, 1973; Will, 1974, 1989, 1993;

Haugan and Will, 1977). Such an approach, relying as it does on parameters familiar to engineers, can be

considered a “metric engineering” approach. Maxwell’s equations in curved space are treated in the

isomorphism of a polarizable medium of variable refractive index in flat space (Volkov et al., 1971); the

bending of a light ray near a massive body is modeled as due to an induced spatial variation in the

refractive index of the vacuum near the body; the reduction in the velocity of light in a gravitational

potential is represented by an effective increase in the refractive index of the vacuum, and so forth. This

optical-engineering approach has been shown to be quite general (de Felice, 1971; Evans et al., 1996a, b).

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As recently elaborated by Puthoff (1999a, 2002a, b; Puthoff et al., 2002) the PV-GR approach, which

was first introduced by Wilson (1921) and then developed by Dicke (1957, 1961), can be carried out in a

self-consistent way so as to reproduce to appropriate order both the equations of general relativity and the

match to the standard astrophysics weak-field experimental (PPN parameters and other) tests of those

equations while posing testable modifications for strong-field conditions. It is in application that the PVGR

approach demonstrates its intuitive appeal and provides additional insight into what is meant by a

curved spacetime metric.

Specifically, the PV-GR approach treats such measures as the speed of light, the length of rulers

(atomic bond lengths), the frequency of clocks, particle masses, and so forth, in terms of a variable

vacuum dielectric constant K in which the vacuum permittivity ε0 transforms as ε0 → Kε0 and the vacuum

permeability transforms as µ0 → Kµ0 (see also, Rucker, 1977). In a planetary or solar gravitational

potential K = exp(2GM/rc0


) > 1 (M is a local mass distribution, r is the radial distance from the center of

  1. M) while K = 1 in “empty” or free asymptotic space (Puthoff, 1999a, 2002a, b; Puthoff et al., 2002). In

the former case, the speed of light is reduced, light emitted from an atom is redshifted as compared with a

remote static atom (where K = 1), clocks run slower, objects/rulers shrink, etc. See Table 1.

Table 1. Metric Effects in the PV-GR Model When K > 1 (Compared With

Reference Frames at Asymptotic Infinity Where K = 1; adapted from Puthoff et al., 2002)

Variable Determining Equation

(subscript 0 is asymptotic value

where K = 1)

K > 1

(typical mass distribution, M)

modified speed of light c


(K) c


= c0/K speed of light < c0

Modified mass m(K) m = m0K3/2 effective mass increases

modified frequency ω(K) ω = ω0K−1/2 redshift toward lower frequencies

modified time interval ∆t(K) ∆t = ∆t0K1/2 clocks run slower

modified energy E(K) E = E0K−1/2 lower energy states

Modified length L(K) L = L0K−1/2 objects/rulers shrink


“gravitational” forces F(K)

F(K) ∝ ∇K attractive gravitational force

When K = 1 we have the condition that c


= c0 (vacuum refraction index = 1), because the vacuum is

free (or un-modified, and ρvac = 0) in this case. When K > 1, as occurs in a region of space possessing a

gravitational potential, then we have the condition that c


< c0 (vacuum refraction index > 1), because the

modified vacuum has a higher energy density in the presence of the local mass distribution that generates

the local gravitational field. This fact allows us to make a direct correspondence between the speed of

light modification physics discussion in Section 2.2 and the underlying basis for the physics of the PVGR

model. Under certain conditions the spacetime metric can in principle be modified to reduce the

value of K to below unity, thus allowing for faster-than-light (FTL) motion to be physically realized. In

this case, the local speed of light (as measured by remote static observers) is increased, light emitted from

an atom is blueshifted as compared with a remote static atom, objects/rulers expand, clocks run faster, etc.

See Table 2. We therefore have the condition that c


> c0 (vacuum refraction index < 1) because the

modified vacuum has a lower energy density. In fact, Puthoff (1999a, 2002a) has analyzed certain special

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black hole metrics and found K < 1 from the model. We will return to this theme later. In what follows

we briefly review and summarize the key points and equations from the development of the PV-GR

model, and we refer the reader to Puthoff (1999a, 2002a, b) for more extensive discussion and


Table 2. Metric Effects in the PV-GR Model When K < 1 (Compared With

Reference Frames at Asymptotic Infinity Where K = 1; adapted from Puthoff et al., 2002)

Variable Determining Equation

(subscript 0 is asymptotic

value where K = 1)

K < 1

(typical mass distribution, M)

modified speed of light c


(K) c


= c0/K speed of light > c0

modified mass m(K) m = m0K3/2 effective mass decreases

modified frequency ω(K) ω = ω0K−1/2 blueshift toward higher frequencies

modified time interval ∆t(K) ∆t = ∆t0K1/2 clocks run faster

modified energy E(K) E = E0K−1/2 higher energy states

modified length L(K) L = L0K−1/2 objects/rulers expand


“gravitational” forces F(K)

F(K) ∝ ∇K repulsive gravitational force

We begin by recalling that in flat space electrodynamics, the electric flux vector D in a linear,

homogeneous medium can be written


where ε is the permittivity of the medium, the polarization P corresponds to the induced dipole moment

per unit volume in the medium whose polarizability per unit volume is αV, and E is the electric field. The

identical form of the last two terms naturally leads to the interpretation of ε0 as the polarizability per unit

volume of the vacuum. The quantum picture of the vacuum, where it has been shown that the vacuum

acts as a polarizable medium by virtue of induced dipole moments resulting from the excitation of virtual

electron-positron particle pairs (Heitler, 1954), completely justifies the interpretation that the vacuum is a

medium. Note that there are other virtual particle pairs in the vacuum that also contribute to this picture;

however, it is the electron-positron pairs that dominate the others, as shown in Section 2.2. The basic

postulate of the PV-GR model for curved space conditions is that the polarizability of the vacuum in the

vicinity of localized mass-energy distributions differs from its asymptotic free space value by virtue of

vacuum polarization effects induced by the presence of the local mass-energy. Thus the postulate for the

vacuum itself iswhere K (a function of position) is the modified dielectric constant of the vacuum due to the induced

vacuum polarizability changes under consideration. Equation (2.27) defines the transformation ε = Kε0.

Table 1 shows the various quantitative effects a polarizable vacuum (in the presence of positive massenergy

distributions) has on the various measurement processes important to general relativity. The

effects demonstrated in the middle and right columns demonstrate the basis of the polarizable vacuum

approach to general relativity. Table 2 shows what effects are manifested when negative mass-energy

distributions induce vacuum polarizability changes that lead to FTL phenomenon. Experimental

observations impose constraints on the model causing key physical constants to remain constant even

with variable polarizability present in the local space. Puthoff (1999a, 2002a, b) has shown that the fine

structure constant is constrained by observational data to remain constant within a variable polarizable

vacuum, and this constraint actually defines the transformation µ = Kµ0. The elementary particle charge e

is also taken to be constant in a variable polarizable vacuum because of charge conservation. And ħ

remains a constant by conservation of angular momentum for circularly polarized photons propagating

through the (variable polarizability) vacuum. The remaining constant of nature is the speed of light, and

although the tables showed how this was modified in variable polarizability vacuums, it is interesting to

see how this modification comes about. In a modified (variable polarizability) vacuum the speed of light

is defined, as it is in standard electrodynamics, in terms of the permittivity and permeability by:


where the permittivity/permeability transformations and the free space (un-modified vacuum) definition

for c0 were inserted. Note that (2.28) can be re-written as c


/c0 = 1/K, and this is to be compared with

(2.22). Thus we see from (2.28), and by comparison with (2.22), that K plays the role of a variable

refractive index under conditions in which the vacuum polarizability is assumed to change in response to

general relativistic-type influences. One further note of interest is that the permittivity/permeability

transformations also maintains constant the ratio



µ µ

ε ε

= ,

which is the impedance of free space. This constant ratio is required to keep electric-to-magnetic energy

ratios constant during adiabatic movement of atoms from one position in space to another of differing

vacuum polarizability (Dicke, 1957, 1961). And this constant ratio is also a necessary condition in the

THεµ formalism for an electromagnetic test particle to fall in a gravitational field with a compositionindependent

acceleration (Lightman and Lee, 1973; Will, 1974, 1989, 1993; Haugan and Will, 1977).

Now we make the “crossover connection” to the standard spacetime metric tensor concept that

characterizes conventional general relativity theory, as originally shown by Puthoff (1999a, 2002a, b). In

flat (un-modified or free) space the standard four-dimensional infinitesimal spacetime interval ds2

is given

(in Cartesian coordinates with subscript 0) by


where i ≡ (1 = x, 2 = y, 3 = z). This metric means that measuring rods and clocks are non-varying

wherever one goes in spacetime to make measurements. However, this has been shown to be incorrect in

general relativity theory, so the length and time transformations (between proper and coordinate values)

given in the tables (middle columns) indicate that measuring rods and clocks do vary when placed in

regions where K ≠ 1. Therefore, we replace the time and space differentials in (2.29) with the length and

time transformations in the tables into (2.29), and derive the general relativistic spacetime interval



Note that observers within a K ≠ 1 region will always measure the speed of light to be c0. Equation (2.30)

defines an isotropic coordinate system, which is a common and useful way to represent spacetime metrics

in general relativity studies. By inspection the metric tensor is written




The Lagrangian density for matter-field interactions in a vacuum of variable K is given by Puthoff


εwhere the first term is the Lagrangian density for a free particle of mass m0, charge q and 3-vector

velocity v (v = |v|, 3-vector components are labeled by i) interacting with electromagnetic fields via the

electromagnetic field 4-vector potential Aµ = (Φ, Ai) (note that δ3

(r – r0) is the delta function that locates

the point particle at position r = r0); the second term is the Lagrangian density for the electromagnetic

fields themselves, and the last term is the Lagrangian density for K (treated here as a scalar variable).

This last term emulates the Lagrangian density for the gravitational field. Equation (2.32) does not

include any quantum gauge field interaction terms because it is beyond the scope of the present

incarnation of the PV-GR approach to include them. We can obtain the equations of particle motion in a

variable dielectric vacuum by performing the standard variations of the Lagrangian density δ(∫ Ld dx dy dz

  1. dt) with respect to the particle variables. However, we are more interested in obtaining the “master

equation” for K by varying the Lagrangian density with respect to K, and Puthoff (1999a, 2002a, b) gives

the result:



This equation describes the generation of general relativistic vacuum polarization effects due to the

presence of matter and fields. By inspecting the right-hand side of the equation, we observe that changes

in K are driven by the mass density (1st term), electromagnetic energy density (2nd term), and the vacuum

polarization energy density itself (3rd term). In fact, the 3rd term emulates the gravitational field selfenergy

density. Note that the 2nd and 3rd terms in (2.33) appear with opposite signs with the result that

electromagnetic field effects can counteract the gravitational field effects. Puthoff found that (2.33) gives

the solution K = exp(2GM/rc0


) in the vicinity of a static spherically symmetric (uncharged) mass M (in

the low velocity limit v << c0, ∂K/∂t = 0, E = B = 0, q = 0), which reproduces to appropriate order the

standard general relativistic Schwarzschild spacetime metric for the weak gravitational field conditions

prevailing in the solar system. This solution guarantees that K > 1 near mass concentrations.

Of major importance to the present study are solutions giving K < 1 so that teleportation can be

realized. Puthoff has found one such solution by studying the case of a static spherically symmetric mass

M with charge Q familiar from the study of the Reissner-Nordstrφm spacetime metric. In this case

Puthoff found the result

( )


22 22

2 2

2 2

cos sin ba a ba K ba

r r b a

    − − =+ >    

  −  


where a


= (GM/c0




, b2

= Q2



, and r is the radial distance from the center of M. And in this case

(2.34) gives K < 1, which shows that FTL solutions are available in the PV-GR approach (as they are also

in the Einstein theory). (For a


> b2

the solution is hyperbolic-trigonometric and describes the standard

Reissner-Nordstrφm metric where K > 1.)

Generally speaking, in Einstein general relativity the Reissner-Nordstrφm metric can be manipulated

along with two shells of electrically charged matter to form a traversable wormhole (Schein and

Aichelburg, 1996). But there are two drawbacks to this. The first is that the scheme involves dealing

with the collapsed state of the stellar matter that generates the metric (a.k.a. Reissner-Nordstrφm black

hole) along with the unpleasant side effects that are encountered, such as the crushing singularities and

multiple (unstable) event horizons. Second, the traversable wormhole is an eternal time machine

connecting remote regions of the same universe together. Now there are no black hole solutions found in

the PV-GR model because in that approach stellar matter collapses smoothly to an ultra-dense state and

without the creation of singularities and event horizons (Puthoff, 1999b).

In either case, the Reissner-Nordstrφm metric does not offer a viable mechanism for vmTeleportation.

We are more interested in examining other PV-GR cases (where K < 1 or even K << 1)

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that emulate the effects of traversable wormhole metrics that do obey the vm-Teleportation definition,

such as the example presented in Section 2.1. Equation (2.33) suggests that we search for a vacuum

engineering concept that exploits electromagnetic fields to alter the vacuum dielectric constant K to

induce the desired vm-Teleportation effect in the modified vacuum. (However, we can insert other source

terms that will lead to the desired result.) We envision this particular teleportation concept to resemble

Figure 2. [Note: Before this report went to press H. E. Puthoff, C. Maccone and the author discovered a

number of K < 1 solutions to equation (2.33) that uniquely meet the definition of vm-Teleportation and

FTL motion. We discovered that the generic energy density required to generate K < 1 solutions must be

negative, and that the total energy density of the system as seen by remote observes is approximately

zero. This unique result compares very well with the traversable wormhole mass-energy density

requirements discussed in Section 2.1.2. This discovery will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.]

2.3 Conclusion and Recommendations

The concept we envision for vm-Teleportation is that animate or inanimate objects would be placed

inside an environmentally enclosed vessel that would simply be moved into the teleportation device. The

“teleporter” would be activated, and the vessel would almost immediately disappear and then reappear at

the remote destination as if it were briefly moving through a portal or “stargate.” The teleportation device

might be required to operate in the vacuum of space outside of the Earth’s atmosphere. We have shown

two practically equivalent ways to implement vm-Teleportation. There is the manipulation of spacetime

geometry via exploiting negative (i.e., quantum vacuum zero point) energy as shown by Einstein’s

general relativity theory, and there is the modification of the vacuum dielectric constant as shown by the

PV-GR model. Both have a great deal of theoretical foundation to begin exploring experimentally. The

PV-GR model needs additional theoretical work for the present application, but it is now mature enough

for experimental exploration.

There already is extensive theoretical, and more importantly, experimental research proving that the

vacuum can be engineered (or physically modified) so that the vacuum ZPE can be exploited (via the

Casimir Effect, for example) to extract electrical energy or actuate microelectromechanical devices (see

for example, Ambjφrn and Wolfram, 1983; Forward, 1984, 1996, 1998; Puthoff, 1990, 1993; Cole and

Puthoff, 1993; Milonni, 1994; Mead and Nachamkin, 1996; Lamoreaux, 1997; Chan et al., 2001, and the

references cited therein). But most of this research involves very low energy density regimes, which are

much too low for our purposes. The Mead and Nachamkin (1996) device is actually designed to extract

electrical energy from the higher frequency/higher energy density ZPE modes. However, new ultrahighintensity

lasers became available in the 1990s that have achieved extreme physical conditions in the lab

that are comparable to the extreme astrophysical conditions expected to be found in stellar cores and on

black hole event horizons (Perry, 1996; Mourou et al., 1998; Perry, 2000). The power intensity of these

lasers has reached the point to where they actually probe QED vacuum physics and general relativistic

physics, and they have even modified the vacuum itself. The lasers were originally called petaWatt lasers

(operating range of 1014 – 1018 Watts/cm2

at femtosecond pulses), but they have now reached power

intensity levels in the 1025 – 1030 Watts/cm2

range. The lasers were made possible by a novel

breakthrough called “chirped pulse amplification” whereby the initial low energy/low power intensity

laser beam is stretched, amplified and then compressed without experiencing any beam distortions or

amplifier damage. This laser system was initially designed as a large-optics beam-line power booster for

the NOVA laser fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. But researchers found a

way to shrink the optics down to tabletop scale, and one can now own and operate a tabletop ultrahighintensity

laser for ≈ $500,000. The dimensions of the optical bench used by the University of CaliforniaSan

Diego is ≈ 5 m × 12 m (or ≈ 60 m2

; see Mourou et al., 1998). In tabletop lab experiments ultrahighintensity

lasers have generated >> gigagauss magnetic fields, ≥ 1016 Volt/cm electric field strengths, >>

terabar light pressures and >> 1022 m/sec2

subatomic particle accelerations. These ultrahigh-intensity

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tabletop lasers are thus the ideal instrument with which to explore the fundamental physics underlying the

two possible concepts for vm-Teleportation.

There are several ideas on how to generate negative energy in the lab that could potentially be

extracted and concentrated in the proper fashion to induce the traversable flat-face wormhole outlined in

Section 2.1.1 or induce the K < 1 condition (in the PV-GR model) outlined in Section 2.2.1. The schemes

for generating negative energy are:

‰ Casimir Effect (described in Section 2.2): This is the easiest and most well known way to

generate negative energy in the lab. The energy density ρCasimir = −(π2


within a

Casimir capacitor cavity is negative and manifests itself by producing a force of attraction

between the capacitor plates. This has been measured in the lab (see above references). Forward

(1998) proposes a mechanism for the endless extraction of energy from the vacuum in a Casimir

cavity by cyclic manipulation of the cavity dimensions.

‰ Moving Mirror: Negative quantum vacuum energy can be created by a single moving reflecting

surface (a moving mirror). If a mirror moves with increasing acceleration, then a flux of negative

energy emanates from its surface and flows out into the space ahead of the mirror (Birrell and

Davies, 1982). However, this effect is known to be exceedingly small, and it is not the most

effective way to generate negative energy.

‰ Optically Squeezed Laser Light: Negative quantum vacuum energy can also be generated by an

array of ultrahigh intensity lasers with an ultrafast rotating mirror system. In this scheme a laser

beam is passed through an optical cavity resonator made of lithium niobate crystal that is shaped

like a cylinder with rounded silvered ends to reflect light. The resonator will act to produce a

secondary lower frequency light beam in which the pattern of photons is rearranged into pairs.

This is the quantum optical “squeezing” of light effect. (See Section A.2 in Appendix A for a

complete definition and description of squeezed quantum states.) Therefore, the squeezed light

beam emerging from the resonator will contain pulses of negative energy interspersed with pulses

of positive energy. Another way to squeeze light would be to manufacture extremely reliable

light pulses containing precisely one, two, three, etc. photons apiece and combine them together

to create squeezed states to order. Superimposing many such states could theoretically produce

bursts of intense negative energy. For the laser beam resonator example we find that both

negative and positive energy pulses are of ≈ 10−15 second duration. We could arrange a set of

rapidly rotating mirrors to separate the positive and negative energy pulses from each other. The

light beam is to strike each mirror surface at a very shallow angle while the rotation ensures that

the negative energy pulses are reflected at a slightly different angle from the positive energy

pulses. A small spatial separation of the two different energy pulses will occur at some distance

from the rotating mirror. Another system of mirrors will be needed to redirect the negative

energy pulses to an isolated location and concentrate them there.

‰ Gravitationally Squeezed Vacuum Energy: A natural source of negative quantum vacuum energy

comes from the effect that gravitational fields (of astronomical bodies) in space have upon the

surrounding vacuum. For example, the gravitational field of the Earth produces a zone of

negative energy around it by dragging some of the virtual particle pairs (a.k.a. virtual photons or

vacuum ZPF) downward. This concept was initially developed in the 1970s as a byproduct of

studies on quantum field theory in curved space (Birrell and Davies, 1982). However, Hochberg

and Kephart (1991) derived an important application of this concept to the problem of creating

and stabilizing traversable wormholes, and their work was corrected and extended by Davis

(1999a). They proved that one can utilize the negative vacuum energy densities, which arise

from distortion of the electromagnetic zero point fluctuations due to the interaction with a

prescribed gravitational background, for providing a violation of the energy conditions (see

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Section A.1 in Appendix A). Hochberg and Kephart (1991) showed that the squeezed quantum

states of quantum optics provide a natural form of matter having negative energy density. And

since the vacuum is defined to have vanishing energy density, anything possessing less energy

density than the vacuum must have a negative energy density. The analysis, via quantum optics,

shows that gravitation itself provides the mechanism for generating the squeezed vacuum states

needed to support stable traversable wormholes. The production of negative energy densities via

a squeezed vacuum is a necessary and unavoidable consequence of the interaction or coupling

between ordinary matter and gravity, and this defines what is meant by gravitationally squeezed

vacuum states. The magnitude of the gravitational squeezing of the vacuum can be estimated

from the squeezing condition, which simply states that substantial gravitational squeezing of the

vacuum occurs for those quantum electromagnetic field modes with wavelength (λ in meters) >

Schwarzschild radius (rS in meters) of the mass in question (whose gravitational field is

squeezing the vacuum). The Schwarzschild radius is the critical radius, according to general

relativity theory, at which a spherically symmetric massive body becomes a black hole; i.e., at

which light is unable to escape from the body’s surface. We can actually choose any radial

distance from the mass in question to perform this analysis, but using the Schwarzschild radius

makes equations simpler in form. The general result of the gravitational squeezing effect is that

as the gravitational field strength increases the negative energy zone (surrounding the mass) also

increases in strength. Table 3 shows when gravitational squeezing becomes important for

example masses. The table shows that in the case of the Earth, Jupiter and the Sun, this squeeze

effect is extremely feeble because only ZPF mode wavelengths above 0.2 m – 78 km are affected.

For a solar mass black hole (radius of 2.95 km), the effect is still feeble because only ZPF mode

wavelengths above 78 km are affected. But note from the table that quantum black holes with

Planck mass will have enormously strong negative energy surrounding them because all ZPF

mode wavelengths above 8.50 × 10−34 meter will be squeezed; in other words, all wavelengths of

interest for vacuum fluctuations. Black holes with proton mass will have the strongest negative

energy zone in comparison because the squeezing effect includes all ZPF mode wavelengths

above 6.50 × 10−53 meter. Furthermore, a black hole smaller than a nuclear diameter (≈ 10−16 m)

and containing the mass of a mountain (≈ 1011 kg) would possess a fairly strong negative energy

zone because all ZPF mode wavelengths above 10−15 meter will be squeezed.

Table 3. Substantial Gravitational Squeezing Occurs When

λ ≥ 8πrS (For Electromagnetic ZPF; adapted from Davis, 1999a)

Mass of body Schwarzschild radius of body, rS ZPF mode wavelength, λ

Sun = 2.0 × 1030 kg 2.95 km ≥ 78 km

Jupiter = 1.9 × 1027 kg 2.82 m ≥ 74 m

Earth = 5.976 × 1024 kg 8.87 × 10−3

m ≥ 0.23 m

Typical mountain ≈ 1011 kg ≈ 10−16 m ≥ 10−15 m

Planck mass = 2.18 × 10−8

kg 3.23 × 10−35 m ≥ 8.50 × 10−34 m

Proton = 1.673 × 10−27 kg 2.48 × 10−54 m ≥ 6.50 × 10−53 m

  • Recommendations:

¾ Theoretical Program 1: A one to two year theoretical study (cost ≈ $80,000) should be initiated to

explore the recently discovered K < 1 (FTL) solutions to equation (2.33) in order to define,

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characterize and model the negative energy density source(s) that induce the FTL vacuum

modification. The study should also identify potential lab experiments designed to test theoretical


¾ Theoretical Program 2: A one to two year study (cost ≈ $80,000) should be initiated to conduct a

detailed review of the negative energy generation schemes summarized above to define their

characteristics, performances and requirements. The study should develop technical parameters

for each of the schemes in order to identify potential lab experiments.

¾ Experimental Program 1: An experimental study should be conducted to test Forward’s (1998)

Casimir energy extraction proposal. An experiment definition study will be required to estimate

the experimental method, procedure, equipment needs and costs.

¾ Experimental Program 2: An experimental study using ultrahigh-intensity lasers should be

conducted to test the Optically Squeezed Laser Light proposal. An experiment definition study

will be required to estimate the experimental method, procedure, equipment needs and costs.

¾ Experimental Program 3: An experimental study using ultrahigh-intensity lasers should be

conducted to probe QED vacuum physics and vacuum modification as well as test elements of the

PV-GR model. A starting point for this program would be to use such lasers to perform the Ding

and Kaplan (1989, 1992, 2000; see also, Forward, 1996) experiment. This is an important

fundamental physics experiment to do, because it can distinguish between the rival quantum

vacuum electromagnetic ZPE fluctuation and fluctuating charged particle source field theory

models, which would settle the acrimonious debate over whether the vacuum really fluctuates or

not. R. L. Forward (1999) told the author that a Nobel Prize rides on performing this experiment

and settling the issue once and for all. The Ding and Kaplan proposal is already designed to

probe QED vacuum physics and vacuum modification. [The essence of the Ding and Kaplan

proposal is to demonstrate that a form of photon-photon scattering predicted by QED gives rise to

2nd-harmonic generation of intense laser radiation in a DC magnetic field due to the broken

symmetry of interaction (in the Feynman “box” diagram approximation). This effect is possible

only when the field system (optical wave + DC field) is inhomogeneous, in particular when a

Gaussian laser beam propagates in either a homogeneous or inhomogeneous DC magnetic field.

In other words, a vacuum region is filled with a DC magnetic field that polarizes the virtual

particle pairs (a.k.a. virtual photons) in the vacuum. This polarized vacuum then scatters incident

ultrahigh-intensity laser photons of frequency ν (energy E), thereby generating outgoing photons

of frequency 2ν (energy 2E).] An experiment definition study will be required to estimate the

experimental method, procedure, equipment needs and costs.

¾ Experimental Program 4: An experimental study using ultrahigh-intensity lasers should be

conducted to establish the extreme physical conditions necessary to test the strong-field limit of

general relativity with an emphasis on generating spacetime curvature and negative energy in

order to induce a putative micro-wormhole. (Experimental Programs 3 and 4 could be done

together to determine whether Puthoff’s PV-GR theory or Einstein’s general relativity theory is

the correct model for nature.) A Nobel Prize is in the offing if this question were to be addressed

and settled. An experiment definition study will be required to estimate the experimental method,

procedure, equipment needs and costs.

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3.1 Teleportation Scenario

Future space explorers and their equipment will need to easily and quickly travel from an orbiting

spacecraft to the surface of some remote planet in order to get their work done, or military personnel in

the United States need to easily and quickly travel from their military base to another remote location on

Earth in order to participate in a military operation, or space colonists will need quick transport to get

from Earth to their new home planet. Instead of using conventional transportation to expedite travel the

space explorer, military personnel or space colonist and/or their equipment go into the “Teleporter” (a.k.a.

“Transporter” in Star Trek lingo) and are “beamed down” or “beamed over” to their destinations at light

speed. The mechanism for this teleportation process is hypothetically envisioned to be the following:

  1. Animate/inanimate objects placed inside the teleporter are scanned by a computer-generated and –

controlled beam.

  1. The scan beam encodes the entire quantum information contained within the animate/inanimate

object(s) into organized bits of information, thus forming a digital pattern of the object(s).

  1. The scan beam then dematerializes the object(s) and stores its pattern in a pattern buffer, thus

transforming the atomic constituents of the dematerialized object(s) into a matter stream.

Alternative 1: The dematerialization process converts the atoms into a beam of pure energy.

Alternative 2: The scan beam does not dematerialize the object(s).

  1. The teleporter then transmits the matter/pure energy stream and quantum information signal in

the form of an annular confinement beam to its destination. Alternative: Only the quantum

information signal is transmitted.

  1. At the receiving teleporter the matter/pure energy stream is sent into a pattern buffer whereby it is

recombined with its quantum information, and the object(s) is rematerialized back into its original

form. Alternative 1: The receiving teleporter recombines the transmitted quantum information

with atoms stored inside a reservoir to form a copy of the original. Alternative 2: The quantum

information is reorganized in such a way as to display the object on some three-dimensional

(holographic) visual display system.

Problem: This generic scenario is modeled after teleportation schemes found in SciFi. There are a lot of

important little details that were left out of the teleportation process because we simply do not know what

they are. This technology does not yet exist. And we are left with the question of which one of the

alternative processes identified in items 3 – 5 one wants to choose from. The above scenario is only an

outline, and it is by no means complete since it merely serves to show what speculation exists on the

subject. The above scenario describes a speculative form of what we call q-Teleportation.

There are questions to be addressed in the above scenario. Does the teleporter transmit the atoms and

the quantum bit information signal that comprises the animate/inanimate object or just the quantum bit

information signal? There are ≈ 1028 atoms of matter combined together in a complex pattern to form a

human being. How does one transmit this much information and how do we disassemble that many

atoms? Computer information gurus would insist that it is not the atoms that matter but only the bits of

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information representing them when considering the transmission of large “bodies” of information. But

are humans simply the sum of all the atoms (and the related excited atom quantum states) that comprise

them? We could possibly learn to reconstitute a beam of atoms into a chemically accurate human being.

However, would this also include the reconstruction of a person’s consciousness (personality, memories,

hopes, dreams, etc.) and soul or spirit? This question is beyond the scope of this study to address, but it is

nevertheless one of the most important concepts awaiting a complete scientific understanding.

For the teleporter to process and transmit the quantum bit information signal that encodes the

animate/inanimate object’s pattern will require stupendous digital computer power. For each atom

comprising the object we must encode its location in space (three position coordinates), its linear and

angular momentum (three vector components for each quantity), and its internal quantum state (electron

orbital-energy levels and their excitation/de-excitation and ionization states, binding to other atoms to

form molecules, molecular vibrational/rotational states, bound nuclei states, spin states for electrons and

nuclei, etc.), etc. If we assume that we can digitally encode all of this information for a single atom with

a minimum of one kilobyte (1 byte = 8 bits, 1 bit ≡ 0 or 1) of data, then we will require a minimum of

1028 kilobytes to encode and store an entire human being (in three-dimensions). To digitally store and

access this much information at present (and for the foreseeable future) is nontrivial. It will take more

than 2,400 times the present age of the universe (≈ 13 billion years) to access this amount of data using

commercially available computers (operating at ≈ 10 gigabyte/sec). Top-of-the-line supercomputers will

not reduce this time significantly. The computer technology needed to handle such a large data storage

requirement simply does not exist. The largest commercially available computers can store ≈ 40

gigabytes on a single hard drive. We will need ≈ 1020 of these hard drives to store the encoded

information of just one human being. Also, wire and coaxial/fiber optic cables do not have the physical

capacity to transmit this amount of data between devices. These numbers will not be significantly

different for macroscopic inanimate objects. The information processing and transfer technology required

for the teleportation system may become possible in 200 – 300 years if improvements in computer storage

and speed maintains a factor of 10 – 100 increase for every decade. There is speculation that emergent

molecular, bio-molecular (DNA-based systems) and quantum computer technology may achieve the

performances required for a teleportation system. In the former case molecular dynamics mimics

computer logic processes and the ≈ 1025 particles in a macroscopic sample will all act simultaneously,

making for far greater digital information processing and transfer speeds. Researchers have given no

formal performance estimates for this emergent technology. In the latter case quantum computing would

take advantage of entangled quantum states of subatomic matter or photons, whereby digital logic

processes would occur at light speed. This technology is in its infancy, and there has been no clear

direction on what performance levels will be possible in the future. This topic will be discussed further in

Section 3.2.3.

In the above teleportation scenario we might consider dematerializing animate/inanimate objects into

a matter stream consisting of only the object’s constituent atoms or atomic subcomponents (protons,

neutrons and electrons) and transmitting them at the speed of light (or close to it). To push atoms or

subatomic particles to near the speed of light will require imparting to them an energy comparable to their

rest-mass energy, which will be at a minimum of one order of magnitude larger than the amount of energy

required to break protons up into free quarks. The energy required to completely dematerialize (or

dissolve) matter into its basic quantum constituents or into pure energy is alone stupendous. At first one

will have to impart to every molecule within the object an energy that is equivalent to the binding energy

between atoms (atomic binding energy ~ chemical energy ~ several eV) in order to break apart the

molecules comprising the object’s macro-structure. After this an energy equivalent to nuclear binding

energies (≈ several × 106

times atomic binding energy, or ≈ several MeV) must be imparted to every free

atomic nucleus inside the object in order to break apart the protons and neutrons residing within each

nucleus. And last, an energy equivalent to the binding energy that holds together the three quarks

residing within each proton and neutron must be imparted to each of the free protons and neutrons within

the object. According to the Standard Model and experimental data, the quark binding energy is

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practically infinite. But all is not lost, because the Standard Model also predicts that if we could heat up

the nuclei to ≈ 1013 °C (≈ 106

times hotter than the core temperature of the Sun, or ≈ 103

MeV), then the

quarks inside would suddenly lose their binding energies and become massless (along with other

elementary matter). This heat is also equivalent to the rest-mass energy of protons and neutrons.

Therefore, to heat up and dematerialize one human being would require the annihilation of the rest massenergy

of all 1028 protons-neutrons or the energy equivalent of 330 1-megaton thermonuclear bombs.

Compare this stupendous explosive energy with the explosive yield of the largest thermonuclear bomb

ever detonated on Earth, which was a 50-megaton bomb that was built by Andrei Sakharov in the USSR

and detonated on October 30, 1961; it was called “Tzar Bomba.” Its first incarnation (ca. early October

1961) comprised a uranium fusion tamper, which gave an estimated explosive yield of ≈ 100 megatons.

But the weapon was too heavy (27 metric tons) for a bomber to carry, so the tamper was replaced by one

made of lead, which reduced both the weight and the yield. In the end we see that it is not a trivial

problem to simply heat up and dematerialize any human or inanimate objects. The technology to do so

does not exist unless we invoke new physics to get around the energy requirement.

Finally, we must consider the resolution and aperture of the optics required to scan and transmit the

animate/inanimate object’s matter (or energy) stream. The Heisenberg quantum uncertainty principle

fundamentally constrains the measurement resolution of conjugate observable quantities, such as position

and momentum or energy and time. The measurement of any combination of (conjugate) observables

with arbitrarily high precision is not possible, because a high precision measurement of one observable

leads to imprecise knowledge of the value of the conjugate observable. The quantum uncertainty

principle makes it impossible to measure the exact, total quantum state of any object with certainty. The

scan resolution of a teleportation system is defined by the wavelength of light used to illuminate the

object’s atomic/subatomic constituents and record their configurations. To resolve matter at

atomic/subatomic distance scales requires that the energy of the scanner light (photons) be extremely

large (according to the uncertainty principle); and during the scan this large light energy will be conveyed

to the constituents, causing them to drastically change their speed and direction of motion. This means

that it is physically impossible to resolve an object’s atomic/subatomic particle components and their

configurations with the precision necessary to accurately encode and later recreate the object being

teleported. To resolve atomic/subatomic particles requires wavelengths smaller than the size of these

constituents, which will typically be 1 Å – 1 fm. Such wavelengths are in the gamma ray part of the

spectrum, and this becomes a major technical problem for us because at present there is no gamma ray

electro-optics with which to work with. Now consider the example of teleporting an object from the

surface of a planet back to its spacecraft in orbit some several × 102

– 103

km away. The optical aperture

required to illuminate and scan an object with ≈ 1 Å – 1 fm resolution from orbit will be >> several × 102

– 103

  1. If we are to consider teleporting an object from planet to planet or from star to star then the

aperture required will be >> several × 108

– 1013 km. These technical problems are truly insurmountable

unless totally new physics becomes available.

3.2 Quantum Teleportation

It turns out that there does in fact exist a form of teleportation that occurs in nature despite the

numerous technical roadblocks described in the previous section. It is called quantum teleportation,

which is based on the well-known concept of quantum entanglement. Erwin Schrödinger coined the word

“entanglement” in 1935 in a three-part paper (Schrödinger, 1935a, b, c, 1980). These papers were

prompted by the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (1935; denoted hereafter as EPR) paper that raised

fundamental questions about quantum mechanics, whereby Einstein had loudly complained that quantum

mechanics allowed physical processes resembling “spooky action at a distance” to occur. EPR

recognized that quantum theory allows certain correlations to exist between two physically distant parts of

a quantum system. Such correlations make it possible to predict the result of a measurement on one part

of a system by looking at the distant part. On this basis, EPR argued that the distant predicted quantity

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should have a definite value even before being measured, if quantum theory is complete and respects

locality (a.k.a. causality). EPR concluded that, from a classical perspective, quantum theory must be

incomplete because it disallows such definite values prior to measurement. Schrödinger’s perspective on

this argument gives the modern view of quantum mechanics, which is to say that the wavefunction (a.k.a.

quantum state vector) provides all the information there is about a quantum system. In regards to the

nature of entangled quantum states, Schrödinger (1935a, b, c, 1980) stated that, “The whole is in a

definite state, the parts taken individually are not.” This statement defines the essence of pure-state

entanglement. Schrödinger went on to give a description of quantum entanglement by introducing his

famous cat experiment.

To better understand the concept of quantum entanglement/teleportation we will focus on the

quantum wavefunction (a.k.a. quantum state function). Any quantum system such as a particle that

possesses a position in space, energy, angular and linear momentum, and spin is completely described by

a wavefunction. This is usually symbolized in a variety of ways, and we choose to represent a generic

wavefunction using the traditional “bra-ket” notation of quantum mechanics: |ϕ⟩. Anything that we want

to know about the particle is mathematically encoded within |ϕ⟩. As we discussed in the previous section

the wavefunction can never be completely known because there is no measurement that can determine it

completely. The only exception to this is in the special case that the wavefunction has been prepared in

some particular state or some member of a known basis group of states in advance. By measuring one of

the properties of a quantum system, we can get a glimpse of the overall quantum state that is encoded

within |ϕ⟩. According to the quantum uncertainty principle the act of doing such a measurement will

destroy any ability to subsequently determine the other properties of the quantum system. So the act of

measuring a particle actually destroys some of the information about its pristine state. This makes it

impossible to copy particles and reproduce them elsewhere via quantum teleportation. However, it turns

out that one can recreate an unmeasured quantum state in another particle as long as one is prepared to

sacrifice the original particle. The trick is to exploit the EPR process to circumvent the quantum

uncertainty principle.

As discussed previously, EPR discovered that a pair of spatially separated quantum sub-systems that

are parts of an overall quantum system can be “entangled” in a non-local (i.e., non-causal) way. When

two particles come into contact with one another, they can become “entangled.” In an entangled state,

both particles remain part of the same quantum system so that whatever you do to one of them affects the

other one in a predictable fashion. More precisely, a measurement on one of the entangled sub-systems

puts it into a particular quantum state, while instantaneously putting the sub-system with which it is

entangled into a corresponding quantum state, while the two sub-systems are separated by arbitrarily large

distances in spacetime (even backwards in time!). A simple example of this phenomenon is to prepare a

pair of photons in the same quantum state such that they are entangled, and then allow them to fly apart to

remote locations without any form of communication occurring between them along their journey.

Measuring the polarization of one of the pair of entangled photons induces the other photon, which may

be light-years away, into the same state of polarization as that which was measured for its entangled twin.

The basic operation of quantum teleportation can be described as determining the total quantum state of

some large quantum system, transmitting this state information from one place to another, and making a

perfect reconstruction of the system at the new location. In principle, entangled particles can serve as

“transporters” of sorts. By introducing a third “message” particle to one of the entangled particles, one

could transfer its properties to the other one, without ever measuring those properties.

Historically, quantum entanglement was never reconciled with the quantum uncertainty principle and

the requirement of locality (or causality) in observed physical phenomena, thus it became a paradox in

quantum theory. A three-decade debate began following the appearance of the EPR paper over whether

quantum entanglement (a.k.a. “spooky action at a distance”) was a real quantum phenomenon or not, and

this debate came to be called the “EPR dilemma.” Einstein’s only solution to the dilemma was to suggest

that quantum mechanics was incomplete and needed a reformulation to incorporate local hidden-variables

that can account for observed physical phenomena without violating causality. Bell (1964) later solved

the EPR dilemma by deriving correlation inequalities that can be violated in quantum mechanics but have

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to be satisfied within every model that is local and complete. Such models are called “local hiddenvariable

models.” Bell showed that a pair of entangled particles, which were once in contact but later

moved too far apart to interact directly (i.e., causally), can exhibit individually random behavior that is

too strongly correlated to be explained by classical statistics. Bell’s inequalities make it possible to test

whether local hidden-variable models can account for observed physical phenomena in lab experiments.

Groundbreaking experimental work by Aspect et al. (1982a, b) along with further theoretical and

experimental work done by others (Freedman and Clauser, 1972; Aspect, 1983; Aspect and Grangier,

1985; Hong and Mandel, 1985; Bennett and Wiesner, 1992; Tittel et al., 1998a, b; Tittel and Weihs, 2001)

demonstrated violations of the Bell inequalities, which therefore invalidated the local hidden-variable

models. The key result of recent theoretical and experimental work is that an observed violation of a Bell

inequality demonstrates the presence of entanglement in a quantum system.

3.2.1 Description of the q-Teleportation Process

The experimental work of Bennett et al. (1993) followed by the theoretical and experimental work of

others (Vaidman, 1994; Kwiat et al., 1995; Braunstein, 1996; Braunstein and Kimble, 1998; Pan et al.,

1998; Stenholm and Bardroff, 1998; Zubairy, 1998; Vaidman and Yoran, 1999; Kwiat et al., 1999) made

the breakthrough that was necessary to demonstrate the principle of quantum teleportation in practice. It

was a remarkable technical breakthrough that settled, once and for all, the nagging question of whether

quantum entanglement could be used to implement a teleportation process to transfer information

between remotely distant quantum systems non-causally (i.e., at FTL speed). It is easy to describe how

quantum teleportation works in greater detail. Figure 6 compares conventional facsimile transmission

with the quantum teleportation process seen in Figure 7. In a conventional facsimile transmission the

original document is scanned, extracting partial information about it, but it remains more or less intact

after the scanning process. The scanned information is then sent to the receiving station, where it is

imprinted on new paper to produce an approximate copy of the original. In quantum teleportation (Figure

7) one scans out part of the information from object A (the original), which one wants to teleport, while

causing the remaining, unscanned, part of the information in A to pass, via EPR entanglement, into

another object C which has never been in contact with A. Two objects B and C are prepared and brought

into contact (i.e., entangled), and then separated. Object B is taken to the sending station, while object C

is taken to the receiving station. At the sending station object B is scanned together with the original

object A, yielding some information and totally disrupting the states of A and B. This scanned

information is sent to the receiving station, where it is used to select one of several treatments to be

applied to object C, thereby putting C into an exact replica of the former state of A. Object A itself is no

longer in its original initial state, having been completely disrupted by the scanning process. The process

just described is teleportation and not replication, and one should not confuse the two. There is a subtle,

unscannable kind of information that, unlike ordinary information or material, can be delivered via EPR

correlations/entanglement, such that it cannot by itself deliver a meaningful and controllable message.

But quantum teleportation delivers exactly that part of the information in an object that is too delicate to

be scanned out and delivered by conventional methods.


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Figure 6. Classical Facsimile Transmission (Modified IBM Press Image)

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Figure 7. Quantum Teleportation (Modified IBM Press Image)

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We now go one more final step to give a simplified outline of the actual teleportation process

according to Bennett et al. (1993). They propose a multistep procedure by which any quantum state |χ⟩ of

a particle or a photon (that correspond to an N-state system) is to be teleported from one location to

another. For example, |χ⟩ might be a two-level system that could refer to the polarization of a single

photon, the nuclear magnetic spin of a hydrogen atom, or the electronic excitation of an effective twolevel

atom. The following scenario outlines the q-Teleportation process in a very simplified way:

  1. Prepare a pair of quantum subsystems |ϕ⟩ and |ψ⟩ in an EPR entangled state so that they are

linked together. |ϕ⟩ and |ψ⟩ are maximally entangled and together constitute a definite pure state

superposition even though each of them is maximally undetermined or mixed when considered


  1. Transport |ϕ⟩ to the location of the teleportation transmitter and transport |ψ⟩ to the location of the

teleportation receiver. (In the technical literature the transmitter is called “Alice” and the receiver

is called “Bob.”) The transmitter and receiver can be many light years apart in space. Note that

the two subsystems are non-causally correlated via entanglement, but they contain no information

about |χ⟩ at this point. The two subsystems represent an open quantum channel that is ready to

transmit information.

  1. Now Alice brings the teleported state |χ⟩ into contact with the entangled state |ϕ⟩ and performs a

quantum measurement on the combined system |χ⟩|ϕ⟩. Bob and Alice have previously agreed

upon the details of the quantum measurement.

  1. Using a conventional classical communication channel, Alice transmits to Bob a complete

description of the outcome of the quantum measurement she performed on |χ⟩|ϕ⟩.

  1. Bob then subjects |ψ⟩ to a set of linear transformations (i.e., suitable unitary rotations) that are

dictated by the outcome of Alice’s quantum measurement. The quantum subsystem Bob

originally first received is no longer in state |ψ⟩ after the linear transformations because it is now

in a state identical to the original state |χ⟩. Therefore, |χ⟩ has in effect been teleported from Alice

to Bob.

Bennett et al. (1993) showed in their experimental work that this scheme requires both a conventional

communication channel and a non-causal EPR channel to send the state |χ⟩ from one location to another.

In addition to this, a considerable pre-arrangement of entangled states and quantum measurement

procedures is required to make the process work. Bennett et al. (1993) analyzed the information flow

implicit in the process and showed that Alice’s measurement does not provide any information about the

quantum state |χ⟩. All of the quantum state information is passed by the EPR link between the entangled

particle states |ϕ⟩ and |ψ⟩. We can think of the measurement results as providing the “code key” that

permits the EPR information to be decoded properly at Bob’s end. And because the measurement

information must travel on a conventional communications channel, the decoding cannot take place until

the code key arrives, insuring that no FTL teleportation is possible.

The q-Teleportation scheme teleports the state of a quantum system without having to completely

measure its initial state. The outcome of the process is that the initial quantum state |χ⟩ is destroyed at

Alice’s location and recreated at Bob’s location. It is very important for the reader to understand that it is

the quantum states of the particles/photons that are destroyed and recreated in the teleportation process,

and not the particles/photons themselves. The quantum state or wavefunction contains the information on

the state of a particle, but is not a directly observable physical quantity like mass-energy. The quantum

information contained within a state is available in the form of probabilities or expectation values.

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Therefore, q-Teleportation cannot teleport animate or inanimate matter (or energy) in its physical entirety.

However, some experts argue that because a particle’s or a photon’s quantum state is its defining

characteristic, teleporting its quantum state is completely equivalent to teleporting the particle/photon

even though the original particle’s/photon’s quantum state (and defining characteristic) was completely

destroyed in the process (more on this in Section 3.3). Therefore, no quantum cloning is possible and we

are left with a (near-perfect) copy of the now-destroyed original after teleportation (Wootters and Zurek,

1982; Barnum et al., 1996). And finally, classical information itself cannot be teleported faster than the

speed of light via the non-causal EPR channel; however, quantum information can (more on this in

Section 3.2.3).

3.2.2 Decoherence Fundamentally Limits q-Teleportation

Finally, the reader must understand that the q-Teleportation scenario described in the previous section

was simplified because we unrealistically assumed that Alice and Bob shared an EPR entangled pair that

was free of noise or decoherence. Decoherence is the process, whereby an object’s quantum states

degrade when information leaks to or from the environment (i.e., environmental noise) through stray

interactions with the object. In reality, Alice and Bob have quantum systems that interact directly or

through another mediating quantum system like two ions in an ion trap that interact through phonon

modes of the trap, or Rydberg atoms in a laser cavity that interact via photons (Sackett, 2001; Raimond et

al., 2001). Decoherence degrades the fidelity of the quantum link (i.e., the set of pure EPR entangled

pairs) between two quantum systems, thus introducing a certain level of error in the exchange of quantum

information between the systems.

In a real-world example of an application of q-Teleportation to quantum computation (discussed in

the next section), we can devise an array of interconnected ion traps with each trap holding a small

number of ions that are coupled by ions that are moved between the traps or by traveling photons

(Wineland et al., 2002). The quantum link (or EPR interaction) between a pair of systems is subject to

noise or decoherence through photon loss or heating of the phonons. At present, decoherence imposes a

fundamental limit on our ability to perform quantum information processing. Research is continuing on

whether decoherence can be reduced, circumvented, or otherwise be (partially or totally) eliminated. Dür

and Briegel (2003) have taken the first step towards this goal at rudimentary level by showing that faulttolerant

quantum computation can be achieved in the presence of very high noise levels occurring in the

interaction link between small quantum systems, if one assumes that local quantum processing on each

end is nearly error free. They showed that the interaction link can have an error rate of two-thirds.

3.2.3 Recent Developments in Entanglement and q-Teleportation Physics

Quantum teleportation physics is still in its infancy. Both theoretical and experimental developments

are advancing in many different directions, but are far from maturity at this point in time because the field

is still evolving at present. Technical applications of entanglement and q-Teleportation are just becoming

conceptualized for the first time, while a small number of basic physics breakthroughs and their related

applications are in experimental progress at present. The research community is still in the process of

discovering the full nature of entanglement and q-Teleportation, its rules, and what roadblocks nature has

in store for its applications and further progression. The literature cited in this study is by no means

complete, and only represents a subset of the entire field, because the research is still evolving.

An important application of quantum entanglement and q-Teleportation was the discovery made by

Shor (1994, 1997) that computation with quantum states instead of classical bits can result in large

savings in computation time. For example, the best algorithms take exponentially more resources to

factor ever-larger numbers on a classical computer. A 500-digit number needs 108

times as many

computational steps to factor as a 250-digit number. The latter classically requires ≈ 5×1024

computational steps, or about 150,000 years computing time at terahertz speed, to factor. Shor found a

polynomial-time quantum algorithm that solves the problem of finding prime factors of a large integer.

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He showed that his algorithm rises only polynomially so that a 500-digit number takes only eight times as

many computational steps to factor as a 250-digit number. And by using the quantum factoring

algorithm, a 250-digit number requires only ≈ 5×1010 steps or < 1 second to factor at terahertz speed, so

that a 500-digit number will take ≤ 1 second to factor. No classical polynomial-time algorithm for this

problem exists at present. This breakthrough generated a cottage industry of research into quantum

computing and quantum information theory.

IBM (2001) constructed a prototype quantum computer that uses the nuclear spins of seven atoms that

are part of a large molecule with the iron-based chemical composition H5C11O2F5Fe. The computer uses

entangled nuclear spins for storage and has a capacity of seven qubits (qubits are defined in the bulleted

list in the next two paragraphs below). All of the Fluorine atoms in the large molecule are Fluorine

isotope 19 and two of the Carbon atoms are Carbon isotope 13. All the other non-hydrogen atoms have

even isotope numbers and no nuclear spins. The objective of the prototype quantum computer was to

factor the number 15 into its two prime factors 3 and 5 by using Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm. The

quantum computation required that a sample of ≈ 1018 of the large molecules be placed in a magnetic field

and manipulated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. This mechanism allows the spins to

function as qubits, whereby Schor’s algorithm can be performed via manipulation of the NMR fields.

NMR was used to implement quantum computing in this prototype, because the nuclear spins are well

isolated from decoherence as a result of the very long decoherence time (the time after which quantum

coherence is lost due to environmental noise) in the system.

To factor larger numbers will require a system that uses more than seven qubits. It is estimated that a

quantum computer using ≈ 36 qubits could very quickly perform computations that would require a

conventional computer ≈ 13 billion years to perform. And such a computer could solve one of the

technical problems of human teleportation discussed in Section 3.1. However, a scale-up in the number

of qubits is difficult because the IBM prototype has reached the technology limit of NMR quantum

computing. The prototype’s operation requires that all of the qubits must be in the same molecule. And

molecules with more than seven spins that can be used as qubits are not feasible at present. However,

there are alternative technologies for quantum computing that show promise for scaling up the number of

qubits. The technologies of nuclear spin orientation of single atom impurities in semiconductors, electron

spin orientation in quantum dots, and the manipulation of magnetic flux quanta in superconductors all

show promise of providing a basis for scalable quantum computers. Finally, the primary technical

problem in quantum computing at the present time is decoherence, and this must be eliminated or

otherwise mitigated before new quantum technology can become competitive with conventional computer


A byproduct of the recent quantum computing and information research is that a modern theory of

entanglement has emerged. Researchers now treat entanglement as a quantifiable physical resource that

enables quantum information processing and computation. Entanglement is no longer treated as a

paradox of quantum theory. It has been recently discovered that (Nielsen and Chuang, 2000; Nielsen,

2003; Terhal et al., 2003):

  • various kinds of pure and mixed entangled states may be prepared in addition to the simple purestate

superpositions that was described in the previous section

  • the members of an entangled group of objects do not have their own individual quantum states,

only the group as a whole has a well-defined state (i.e., “the whole is greater than the sum of its


  • entangled objects behave as if they were physically connected together no matter how far apart

they actually are, distance does not attenuate entanglement in the slightest – it has been

demonstrated that information can be teleported over 40 km using existing technology (H.

Everitt, Army Research Office, 2000)

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  • if something is entangled with other objects, then a measurement of it simultaneously provides

information about its partners

  • some quantum systems can have a little entanglement while others will have a lot
  • the more entanglement available, the better suited a system is to quantum information processing
  • decoherence degrades the fidelity of the quantum link (i.e., the set of pure EPR entangled pairs)

between two quantum systems, thus introducing a certain level of error in the exchange of

quantum information between the systems; thus limiting our ability to perform quantum

information processing (see more on this issue in the next paragraph below)

  • mixed entangled states may be measured, distilled, concentrated, diluted, and manipulated
  • the basic resource of classical information is the bit (i.e., the two values 0 and 1), while quantum

information comes in quantum bits (i.e., qubits) that are described by their quantum state; qubits

can exist in superpositions that simultaneously involve 0 and 1, thus giving them an infinite range

of values; groups of qubits can be entangled; qubits must be insulated against decoherence, so

that the coherent state of the quantum system in a quantum computer is preserved for a time that

is long enough to set up a calculation, perform it, and read out the results

  • quantum computers processing qubits or entangled qubits can outperform classical computers;

functional requirements of quantum computers:

™ they must have the ability to initialize any qubit in a specified state, and to measure the

state of a specific qubit

™ they must have universal quantum gates, which are logical elements capable of arranging

any desired logical relationship between the states of qubits

™ they must also have a processor capable of interlinking quantum gates to establish rules

and boundary conditions for their inter-relationships – in a quantum computation, the

arrangement of quantum gates connects the qubits in a logical pattern, according to a

program or algorithm, and after an interval the qubits assigned to the result are read out

  • quantum error correction codes exist, whereby qubits are passed through a circuit (the quantum

analogue of logic gates) that will successfully fix an error in any one of the qubits without

actually reading what all the individual qubit states are; no qubit cloning is required

  • a completely secure quantum key can be generated and distributed (for communication and

decoding of encrypted messages) using entangled photons has been demonstrated (Tittel et al.,

2000; Jennewein et al., 2000; Naik et al., 2000); any eavesdropper’s attempt to intercept the

quantum key will alter the contents in a detectable way, enabling users to discard the

compromised parts of the data

  • in an experiment which verified that EPR entanglement obeys Special Relativity (Seife, 2000;

Scarani et al., 2000; Gisin et al., 2000; Zbinden et al., 2000a, b), and involving a photon detector

moving at relativistic speeds (for example, Bob moves away from Alice at close to the speed of

light), investigators determined that quantum information via EPR photon pair entanglement must

travel > 107

times light speed (the photon detectors were 10.6 km apart)

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  • investigators are still developing quantitative laws of entanglement to provide a set of principles

for understanding the behavior of entanglement and how it is used to do information processing

  • investigators are working to develop an understanding of the general principles that govern

complex quantum systems such as quantum computers

Other developments are equally as interesting or compelling. For example, the quantum state of the

object we wish to teleport does not have to describe single microscopic systems like photons, ions, atoms

or electrons. Quantum states can describe large collections of atoms like chemical compounds, humans,

planets, stars, and galaxies. Hartle and Hawking (1983) even derived the quantum wavefunction of the

Universe in closed form, although, it was extremely simplified and excluded the presence of quantum

matter-energy. So it has become possible to consider teleporting large quantum systems. We summarize

the more recent spectacular developments in the following:

  • Generation of entanglement and teleportation by Parametric Down-Conversion (Bouwmeester et

al., 1997; Zeilinger, 2003): EPR entangled photon pairs are created when a laser beam passes

through a nonlinear β-barium borate or BBO crystal. Inside the crystal (BBO, for example) an

ultraviolet photon (λ = 490 nm) may spontaneously split into two lower energy infrared photons

(λ = 780 nm), which is called parametric down-conversion. The two “down-conversion” photons

emerge as independent beams with orthogonal polarizations (horizontal or vertical). (The

orthogonal polarization states represent a classic example of the discrete quantum state variables

that can be teleported. Other examples of discrete quantum variables that have been teleported

using other schemes include the nuclear magnetic spin of a hydrogen atom, electronic excitations

of an effective two-level atom, elementary particle spins, etc.) In the two beams along the

intersections of their emission cones, we observe a polarization-entangled two-photon state. For

the experimental realization of quantum teleportation, it is necessary to use pulsed downconversion.

Only if the pulse width of the UV light, and thus the time of generating photon pairs

is shorter than the coherence time of the down-converted photons, then interferometric Bell-state

analysis can be performed. In this type of experiment, the pulses from a mode-locked Ti:Saphire

laser have been frequency doubled to give pulses of ≈ 200 fs duration (1 fs = 10−15 second). The

interfering light is observed after passage through IR filters of 4 nm bandwidth giving a

coherence time of ≈ 520 fs. After retroflection during its second passage through the crystal, the

UV pulse creates another pair of photons. One of these will be the teleported photon, which can

be prepared to have any polarization. Beam splitters and photon detectors are used to perform the

Bell-state analysis during the standard teleportation process that ensues. See Figure 8 for a

schematic showing the layout of a standard parametric down-conversion entanglementteleportation


  • Teleportation of squeezed states of light and continuous quantum state variables (Furusawa et al.,

1998; Sørensen, 1998; Braunstein and Kimble, 1998; Opatrný et al., 2000; Braunstein et al.,

2001; Zhang et al., 2002; Bowen et al., 2002; Bowen et al., 2003; Zeilinger, 2003): Squeezed

light (see Section A.2 in Appendix A) is used to generate the EPR entangled beams, which are

sent to Alice and Bob. A third beam, the input, is a coherent state of unknown complex

amplitude. This state is teleported to Bob with a high fidelity only achievable via the use of

quantum entanglement. Entangled EPR beams are generated by combining two beams of

squeezed light at a 50/50 beam splitter. EPR beam 1 propagates to Alice’s sending station, where

it is combined at a 50/50 beam splitter with the unknown input state, in this case a coherent state

of unknown complex amplitude. Alice uses two sets of balanced homodyne detectors to make a

Bell-state measurement on the amplitudes of the combined state. Because of the entanglement

between the EPR beams, Alice’s detection collapses Bob’s field (EPR beam 2) into a state

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conditioned on Alice’s measurement outcome. After receiving the classical result from Alice,

Bob is able to construct the teleported state via a simple phase-space displacement of the EPR

field 2. Quantum teleportation in this scheme is theoretically perfect, yielding an output state

which equals the input with a fidelity F = 1. In practice, fidelities less than one are realized due

to imperfections in the EPR pair, Alice’s Bell measurement, and Bob’s unitary transformation.

By contrast, a sender and receiver who share only a classical communication channel cannot hope

to transfer an arbitrary quantum state with a fidelity of one. For coherent states, the classical

teleportation limit is F = 0.5, while for light polarization states it is F = 0.67. The quantum nature

of the teleportation achieved in this case is demonstrated by the experimentally determined

fidelity of F = 0.58, greater than the classical limit of 0.5 for coherent states. The fidelity is an

average over all input states and so measures the ability to transfer an arbitrary, unknown

superposition from Alice to Bob. This technique achieves the teleportation of continuous

quantum state variables, as opposed to the discrete quantum state variables used in the Bennett et

  1. (1993) teleportation protocol and its variants. The teleportation of a squeezed state of light

from one beam of light to another demonstrates the teleportation of a continuous feature (of light)

that comes from the superpositions of an infinite number of basic states of the electromagnetic

field, such as those found in squeezed states. This line of research also involves the experimental

demonstration of the mapping of quantum states from photonic to atomic media via entanglement

and teleportation. Hald et al. (1999) reported on the experimental observation of a spin-squeezed

macroscopic ensemble of 107

cold atoms, whereby the ensemble is generated via quantum state

entanglement/teleportation from non-classical light to atoms.

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Figure 8. Quantum Teleportation (From

At the sending station of the quantum teleporter, Alice encodes a “messenger” photon (M) with a specific

state: 45 degrees polarization. This travels towards a beam splitter. Meanwhile, two additional entangled

photons (A and B) are created. The polarization of each photon is in a fuzzy, undetermined state, yet the

two photons have a precisely defined interrelationship. Specifically, they must have complementary

polarizations. For example, if photon A is later measured to have horizontal (0 degrees) polarization, then

the other photon must collapse into the complementary state of vertical (90 degrees) polarization.

Entangled photon A arrives at the beam splitter at the same time as the message photon M. The beam

splitter causes each photon to either continue toward detector 1 or change course and travel to detector 2.

In 25% of all cases, in which the two photons go off into different detectors, Alice does not know which

photon went to which detector. This inability for Alice to distinguish between the two photons causes

quantum weirdness to kick in. Just by the very fact that the two photons are now indistinguishable, the M

photon loses its original identity and becomes entangled with A. The polarization value for each photon

is now indeterminate, but since they travel toward different detectors Alice knows that the two photons

must have complementary polarizations. Since message photon M must have complementary

polarization to photon A, then the other entangled photon (B) must now attain the same polarization value

as M. Therefore, teleportation is successful. Indeed, Bob sees that the polarization value of photon B is

45 degrees: the initial value of the message photon.

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  • Entanglement of Atoms (Hagley et al., 1997; Sackett et al., 2000): EPR entanglement at the level

of atoms has been experimentally demonstrated using rubidium atoms prepared in circular

Rydberg states (i.e., the outer electrons of the atom have been excited to very high energy states

and are far from the nucleus in circular orbits). The experimental apparatus produces two

entangled atoms, one atom in a ground state and the other atom in an excited state, physically

separated so that the entanglement is non-local. And when a measurement is made on one atom,

let us say the atom in a ground state, then the other atom instantaneously presents itself in the

excited state – the result of the second atom wave function collapse, thus determined by the result

of the first atom wave function collapse. This work is now evolving towards the demonstration

of entanglement for molecules and larger entities followed by teleportation of their states. Bose

and Home (2002) have improved on this concept by proposing a single, simple generic method by

which any atoms, ions and macroscopic objects can be entangled and teleported.

  • Teleportation of an Atomic State via Cavity Decay (Bose et al., 1999; Sackett et al., 2000): It has

been shown how the state of an atom trapped in a cavity can be teleported to a second atom

trapped in a distant cavity simply by detecting photon decays from the cavities.

  • Biological Quantum Teleportation (Mavromatos et al., 2002): There are several obstacles to

teleporting large complicated objects, especially biological entities. Decoherence is the primary

obstacle. That is because observable quantum effects in biological matter is thought to be

strongly suppressed due to the macroscopic nature of most biological entities and the fact that

such systems live at near room temperature, and there is always contact between biological

entities and the environment (the source of decoherence). These conditions result in very fast

collapse of pertinent quantum wavefunctions to one of the allowed classical states of the

biological entity. Mavromatos et al. (2002) propose a daring model that predicts dissipationless

energy transfer along shielded macromolecules at near room temperatures as well as quantum

teleportation of states across microtubules and perhaps neurons. It is proposed that under certain

circumstances it is in principle possible to obtain the necessary isolation against environmental

decoherence, so that meso/macroscopic quantum coherence, and entanglement extending over

scales that are larger than the atomic scale, may be achieved and maintained for times comparable

to the characteristic times for biological and cellular processes. Microtubules are comprised of

tubulin that is a common polar protein found in the cytoskeleton of eukariotic cells, which is

especially enriched in brain tissue. The model treats microtubules as quantum mechanically

isolated high-Q QED cavities, exhibiting properties analogous to those of electromagnetic

cavities routinely used in quantum optics. The model builds a microtubule network that achieves

quantum teleportation of coherent quantum states, leading to decoherence-resistant bulk quantum

information processing and computing within the biological matter. It is speculated that the

model can explain how consciousness works, and how the brain processes and computes


  • Teleportation of a laser beam with embedded radio signal (Bowen et al., 2003): The teleportation

of a laser beam from one part of a lab to another has been demonstrated. Investigators embedded

a radio signal into a laser beam, then disintegrated the beam and reassembled it a meter away,

virtually instantaneously. The laser beam was destroyed in the teleportation process, but the radio

signal survived. The laser light at one end of an optical communications system was

disassembled and its replica was recreated elsewhere in the lab. Even though the laser beam did

not survive teleportation, its encoded message did. This system could be used to transport secure

data, such that it could become possible to construct a perfect cryptography system. When two

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parties want to communicate with one another, one can enable the secrecy of the communication

to be absolutely perfect.

  • Entanglement and Teleportation of a Macroscopic Ensemble of Atoms (Julsgaard et al., 2001):

Expanding upon the earlier work of Hald et al. (1999) and Sackett et al. (2000), investigators

experimentally demonstrated the entanglement of two macroscopic objects, each consisting of a

cesium gas sample containing ≈ 1012 atoms. Entanglement is generated via interaction of the

samples with a pulse of light, which performs a non-local Bell measurement on the collective

spins of the samples. The entangled spin-state can be maintained for 0.5 milliseconds. The

teleportation of macro-ensemble atom quantum states is expected to follow this experiment. This

work is evolving towards the experimental demonstration of the Bose and Home (2002) proposal,

which proved that there is a single generic process that can entangle and teleport any atoms, ions

and macroscopic objects.

  • Entanglement/teleportation of internal state and external motion information of atoms (Opatrný

and Kurizki, 2001): Investigators propose an experiment for transmitting an atom’s full

information, including its “external” states, such as its energy of motion. This procedure

replicates the quantum features of the external motion of a particle. For example, if particle-tobe-teleported

C yielded a diffraction pattern after passing through two slits, then the same pattern

would be produced by particle B, which receives the teleported information. The researchers

propose the following idea: Dissociate a very cold molecule with a laser pulse into two atoms

(called A and B). Then manipulate the two atoms so that they become entangled: each one is in a

fuzzy state individually, but has a precisely defined relationship with its partner. Then let one of

the entangled particles (such as A) collide with particle C, whose unknown state should be

teleported. After their collision, the momentum values of the collision partners A and C are

measured. With that information, the researchers know how to “kick” and deflect atom B, so that

the motion of B precisely emulates that of particle C. The investigators say that state-of-the-art

equipment for studying atomic collisions and quantum effects makes this experiment difficult, but

feasible, to do. If this proposal proves to be correct, then the implication is that it will become

possible to experimentally expand this concept to the teleportation of a large ensemble of atoms,

such that the entire physical motion and quantum states of the ensemble can be teleported. This

could lead to the future development of a teleportation process similar to what was discussed in

Section 3.1.

  • Laser-like Amplification of Entangled Particles and Entangled-Photon Lasers (Lamas-Linares et

al., 2001): Entangled particles are notoriously difficult to create in bulk. To create entangled

photons, for example, researchers use the parametric down-conversion technique to send laser

light through a barium borate crystal. Passing through the crystal, a photon sometimes splits into

two entangled photons (each with half the energy of the initial photon). However, this only

occurs for one in every ten billion incoming photons. To increase the yield, researchers added a

step: they put mirrors beyond the crystal so that the laser pulse and entangled pair could reflect,

and have the chance to interact. The entangled pair and reflected laser pulse interfere

constructively to generate fourfold more two-photon pairs or interfere destructively to create zero

pairs. Following these steps, the researchers increased production of two-photon entangled pairs,

and also of more rare states such as four-photon entangled quartets. This achievement could

represent a step towards an entangled-photon laser, which would repeatedly amplify entangled

particles to create greater yields than previously possible, and also towards the creation of new

and more complex kinds of entangled states.

This list is by no means complete as new developments in this field continue to arise.

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3.3 Conclusion and Recommendations

Given the incredible advancements that have been made in the entanglement and teleportation of

macroscopic objects the size of 1012 atoms, we are still very far away from being able to entangle and

teleport human beings (and even simpler biological entities such as cells, etc.) and bulk inanimate objects

(tools, technical equipment, pencils and pens, weapons platforms, communications devices, personal

hygiene supplies, etc.). There still remain four essential problems:

¾ One needs an entangled pair of such bulk objects.

¾ The bulk objects to be entangled and teleported must be in a pure quantum state (as in a

Bose-Einstein condensate, for example). And pure quantum states are very fragile.

¾ The bulk objects to be entangled and teleported must be extremely isolated from the

environment to prevent the onset of decoherence.

¾ The Bell-state measurement of animate or inanimate objects during

entanglement/teleportation will require extracting an amount of information (in bits) that

equals or exceeds the number of atoms contained within the object. This infers that the

computer storage and processing requirements to entangle and teleport a complete bulk object

will be astronomically huge (recall the discussion in Section 3.1).

It is difficult to imagine how we can achieve an extreme level of environmental isolation for an

object, let alone a living being that breathes air and radiates heat. Experiments with atoms and larger

objects must be done in a high vacuum to avoid collisions with molecules. Thermal radiation from the

walls of a teleportation apparatus would easily disturb a tiny amount of matter. At present, decoherence

imposes a fundamental limit on quantum entanglement and teleportation. Decoherence is the primary

reason why we do not routinely see any quantum effects in our everyday world. Research is continuing

on whether decoherence can be reduced, circumvented, or otherwise be eliminated. And some minor

progress has been made in that direction.

In q-Teleportation it is the quantum states of the objects that are destroyed and recreated, and not the

objects themselves. Therefore, q-Teleportation cannot teleport animate or inanimate matter (or energy) in

its physical entirety. However, some experts argue that because an object’s quantum state is its defining

characteristic, teleporting its quantum state is completely equivalent to teleporting the object, even though

the original object’s quantum state (and defining characteristic) was completely destroyed in the process.

This goes to the heart of what is meant by identity. When an object has all the right properties and

features, it will be the same object that one observes whether it was observed now or 24 hours ago.

Quantum physics reinforces the point that objects of the same type in the same quantum state are

indistinguishable from each other. One should, according to this quantum principle, be able to swap all

the atoms in a particular object with the same atoms from a mound of raw materials, and reproduce the

original object’s quantum states exactly with the end result that the new object is identical to the original.

Last, we do not know how to put a human being into a pure quantum state or what doing so would mean

for biological functioning (including brain function), but we do know how to put ≤ 1012 gas atoms/ions

and a beam of photons into a pure state in practice. Further research will be required to ascertain whether

microbiological and higher-level biological systems, in addition to bulk inanimate matter, can be put into

pure quantum states and entangled/teleported.

To perform a Bell-state measurement on (bulk) animate or inanimate objects, during the

entanglement/teleportation process, to extract and encode its information will require extracting an

amount of information (in bits) that equals or exceeds the number of atoms contained within the object.

An object containing a few grams of matter will require the extraction of > 1028 bits of data. A simple

virus of ≈ 107

atoms would require the extraction of ≥ 108

bits of information during the

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entanglement/teleportation process, whereas the extraction of a minimum of 1028 kilobytes will be

required to encode and store an entire human being. This is beyond the capability of present digital

electronic computer technology to store and process. It is difficult to see how far computer technology

will advance towards meeting this requirement.

It is difficult to fathom what will be in store for the teleportation of human beings given some

possible future technology. What about the effects of the q-Teleportation process on the human

consciousness, memories and dreams, and the spirit or soul? We know from quantum physics that “the

whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” So what happens to the fundamental characteristics of a

human being when he/she steps into the teleporter-transmitter, where their quantum states (i.e., their

complete identity) are destroyed during the quantum entanglement/teleportation process, and then their

copy is created at the teleporter-receiver an instant later? What will things be like during the

entanglement process? Will a teleported individual’s consciousness, memories and dreams, and

spirit/soul be successfully and accurately teleported or not? This is a major ethical and technical question

that will have to be addressed by future research.

  • Recommendations:

¾ Broad-spectrum Quantum Computing Technology Development Program: At present, the

Quantum Information Science Program (QISP) is coordinated by the U.S. Army Research Office

with funding and support from the Army, the National Security Agency, DARPA, and the Office

of the Deputy Director of Defense for Research and Engineering. The Naval Research Lab and

the CIA are both involved in their own programs. The CIA vets new commercial development of

computer technology and computer information processing via its In-Q-Tel company (reference

44). This includes R&D on quantum entanglement and teleportation for computer, information

processing and secure communications. QISP was funded for $19 million in 1999. The program

involves 34 projects by researchers at 21 universities, three government laboratories and two

corporate laboratories. QISP goals include building a quantum computer, developing quantum

information processing, and further advances in quantum teleportation. The AFRL should join

QISP and provide partnership funding on the order of $1 million per year. An alternative to this

would be for AFRL to collaborate with In-Q-Tel and participate in its technology R&D venture

capital programs. This R&D investment would allow the Air Force to acquire very advanced

quantum physics and related technological applications that can support its mission. The R&D

investment benefits would include the development and implementation of quantum

computing/information processing and secured quantum communications technology, which can

significantly enhance the performance and security of Air Force computing and communication

systems infrastructure, and aerospace weapons systems.

¾ Quantum Cryptography: A dedicated research program should be implemented to develop a

mature quantum cryptography technology. Theoretical and experimental work is in progress

among a small number of select groups (QISP, In-Q-Tel, universities, etc.), but this field is not

advancing fast enough for practical applications to become available to meet increasing

adversarial threats against secured military and intelligence communications. The goal of

proposed quantum cryptography research is to bring the theoretical and experimental foundation

of quantum cryptography and secure quantum information processing to maturity, and to fully

develop and implement quantum entanglement/teleportation-based cryptography technology.

Recent experimental work has demonstrated that a completely secure quantum key can be

generated and distributed for the communication and decoding of encrypted messages using

entangled photons. Any eavesdropper’s attempt to intercept the quantum key will alter the

contents in a detectable way, enabling users to discard the compromised parts of the data. There

is much more work that needs to be done in this area. I recommend that the AFRL implement a

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$1 million/year program for five years in order to advance the state-of-art in quantum

cryptography technology.

¾ Quantum Decoherence: Decoherence is the primary reason why we do not routinely see any

quantum effects in our everyday world. And it imposes a fundamental limit on quantum

entanglement and teleportation via the interaction between entangled/teleported quantum systems

and their local environment. In order to advance quantum entanglement/teleportation physics and

develop applied technologies, it is necessary that a research program be implemented by the

AFRL to explore whether decoherence can be significantly reduced, circumvented, or otherwise

be eliminated. An insufficient number of small university groups have slowly made minor

progress in this direction. I recommend that a $500,000 – 750,000 per year R&D program be

conducted for five years to overcome this technical challenge.

¾ Pure Quantum States: In order to entangle and teleport quantum particles and bulk objects, they

both must be prepared in a pure quantum state. And pure quantum states are very fragile to

decoherence. A technical challenge for entanglement/teleportation physics is whether the

requirement for pure quantum states can be relaxed and how much decoherence will play a role in

this situation, what technical challenges will arise when increasing the size of

entangled/teleported matter to larger macroscopic scale (>> 1012 atoms), and whether matter of

mixed composition (such as a gas or Bose-Einstein condensate of mixed atomic elements) can be

entangled/teleported in both pure and mixed quantum states. I recommend that a $250,000 –

500,000 per year research program be conducted for five years to study this problem.

¾ Entangling Bulk Matter and Bell-State Measurement to Extract Information: Recent experiments

demonstrated the entanglement of two macroscopic objects, each consisting of a cesium gas

sample containing ≈ 1012 atoms. Entanglement was generated via interaction of the samples with

a pulse of light, which performs a non-local Bell measurement on the collective spins of the

samples. In order to push the envelope on this development and take it to higher practical levels,

it will be necessary to ascertain the limit on the size and composition of bulk matter entanglement

(given the decoherence and pure-state constraints); and to determine what other quantum states

can be used for entanglement, what other Bell-state measurement techniques can be used, and

whether multiple quantum states can be entangled. The chief technical challenge is the computer

technology that will be required to facilitate the huge amount of data that must be extracted,

processed and stored from bulk matter quantum states during the Bell-state measurement process.

I recommend that a $500,000 – 1 million per year research program be implemented for five

years in order to explore these questions and ascertain what solutions may be technically

available, and to develop such solutions.

¾ Biological Quantum Teleportation: The Mavromatos et al. (2002) theoretical model for biological

entanglement and teleportation is a remarkable concept that could result in the development of a

workable physics theory of consciousness. The model has potential applications to advanced

quantum computing/information processing physics and the physics of psi phenomena (see

Chapter 5). A research program should be implemented to continue the Mavromatos et al. (2002)

work and bring their model to theoretical maturity. It is recommended that this program be

funded at $500,000 – 800,000 per year for five years. A parallel or follow-up program should be

implemented to experimentally test this model and ascertain any useful technological

applications. One application that should be explored in the proposed research program is

advanced, ultra-fast, ultra-high-capacity quantum computing and information processing using

natural and/or artificial biological systems. The parallel or follow-up experimental research

program should be funded at $800,000 – 1.5 million per year for five years.

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  • FTL Communication: Experiments verifying that EPR entanglement obeys Special Relativity

(Seife, 2000; Scarani et al., 2000; Gisin et al., 2000; Zbinden et al., 2000a, b) determined that

quantum information via EPR photon pair entanglement must travel > 107

times light speed. Can

this mechanism be exploited to achieve FTL communication? If so, then the potential military

and commercial applications will be revolutionary, and the science and industry of

communications will be forever transformed. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental

research program should be implemented to answer this question. It is recommended that this

program be funded at $700,000 – 1 million per year for five years. A modest experiment

definition study should be funded at $80,000 for one year to delineate the most promising

experimental approaches to be used for the larger research program. [There is much controversy

and debate over FTL (a.k.a. superluminal) signals/communication, and the reader should see the

selected superluminal references in the Teleportation References section of this study.]

¾ New Entanglement/Teleportation Breakthroughs: The most exciting developments in quantum

teleportation physics has included the teleportation of a laser beam with an embedded radio

signal, the teleportation of squeezed states of light (and hence, continuous quantum state

variables), the teleportation of photon states to atoms/ions (from light to matter!), the

entanglement of two similar/dissimilar quantum particles that are created by two (independently)

different particle sources, the laser-like amplification of entangled particle/photon pairs,

parametric down-conversion entanglement and teleportation (of discrete quantum state variables),

quantum cryptography with unbreakable keys, the teleportation of quantum information at speeds

> 107

times light speed, the entanglement and teleportation of macroscopic (1012 atoms) matter

quantum states, etc. There is also the yet-untested proposal to entangle/teleport the external

physical motion and internal quantum state information of atoms. This shows that quantum

physics sets no apparent limit on what it is that can be teleported/entangled and how it is to be

teleported/entangled, or where it is to be teleported/entangled. At present teleportation

technology requires fiber optic and coaxial cables to teleport quantum state information from one

location to another. Can we avoid the use of cables and teleport through free space? [Note:

Before this report went to press, Aspelmeyer et al. (2003) reported their outdoor experiment that

demonstrated the distribution of quantum entanglement (of laser photons) via optical free-space

links to independent receivers separated by 600 m across the Danube River (during inclement

nighttime weather), with no line of sight between them. This experiment is revolutionary and

begins the step toward conducting satellite-based distributed quantum entanglement.] We have

not discovered all the possibilities that nature has in store for us. The present breakthrough

discoveries will likely introduce novel military and intelligence technology applications in the

near and far future. But further R&D must be conducted in order to discover new applications for

these recent breakthroughs, to make additional breakthroughs and discoveries, and to advance the

state-of-art in quantum teleportation physics to meet future challenges to the Air Force mission. I

recommend that a two-track R&D program be implemented over five years. The first track

should be funded at $250,000 – 750,000 per year for the purpose of developing new

entanglement/teleportation breakthroughs in quantum teleportation physics. The second track

should be funded at $750,000 – 1.5 million per year for the purpose of developing applications

for any new breakthroughs with the proviso that such applications benefit the Air Force mission

and have commercial dual-use capability to leverage advance technology in the private sector.

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4.1 Extra Space Dimensions and Parallel Universes/Spaces

A literature search for proposed e-Teleportation concepts based on the conveyance of objects through

extra space dimensions and/or parallel universes/spaces has yielded only one result (see Section 4.2). The

present state-of-art in research on parallel universes/spaces and extra space dimensions has been strictly

limited to the work on developing a grand unified quantum field theory and a quantum theory of gravity,

whereby the former necessarily includes the latter. Quantum gravity/unified field theory research has

been evolving since the 1920s when Kaluza and Klein published the first papers to describe a model for

the unification of gravity with electrodynamics. Many of the more prominent theories today invoke extra

spatial dimensions, the existence of parallel universes/spaces, or both in order to quantise gravity and/or

to unify gravity with the other forces of nature. It is beyond the scope of this study to provide an in-depth

review of all of the research that has been done in this area, so we list below a select few of the

historically prominent models that have largely gained a secure foothold in present-day research:

¾ Kaluza-Klein Electromagnetic-Gravity Unification Theory/Modern Kaluza-Klein Gravity

Theories (Kaluza, 1921; Klein, 1926; de Sabbata and Schmutzer, 1983; Lee, 1984; Appelquist et

al., 1987; Kaku, 1993, 1994; Overduin and Wesson, 1998): It was originally suggested that

Maxwellian electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation could be unified in a theory of fivedimensional

Riemannian geometry, where the gravitational and electromagnetic potentials

together would determine the structure of spacetime. The fifth space dimension is curled up into

a ball of space with a radius slightly larger than 10−35 m, and it was originally regarded as having

no physical significance because it was simply a mathematical tool used to catalyze unification.

At present, the generic name of Kaluza-Klein stands for a wide variety of approaches to

quantising and unifying gravitation with other quantum fields using any number of dimensions

greater than four.

¾ Superstring Theories (Green, 1985; Kaku, 1988, 1993, 1994): These theories come in a wide

variety of interrelated concepts, and they are a highly evolved form of Kaluza-Klein theories.

They are based on the dynamics of string-like fundamental quanta, whereby the observed

fundamental particles are manifested by the vibrational ground or excitation states of a quantum

string (open or closed loop). The superstrings are ≈ 10−35 m (i.e., the Planck length) in size.

There are different versions of these theories that require ten, eleven or twenty-six extra space

dimensions to unify and quantise gravity, whereby the extra dimensions are curled up (i.e.,

compactified) into balls of space with a radius < 10−35 m. These theories later evolved into

versions that are now called F- and M-theory. The mathematics behind this class of theories is

very ugly, and it is difficult for even the best superstring theorists to make simple or sophisticated

calculations and predictions. And so far, this class of quantum gravity theories has escaped

experimental verification.

¾ D-Brane and 3-Brane Theories/Parallel Spaces (Rubakov and Shaposhnikov, 1983a, b;

Polchinski, 1995; Antoniadis et al., 1998; Randall and Sundrum, 1999a, b; Weiss, 2000; Pease,

2001; Arkani-Hamed et al., 1998, 2000, 2002): D-brane theory is a recent incarnation of the

original superstring theories in which open strings, corresponding to the fundamental particles of

the standard model (quarks, leptons, gauge bosons), have their free ends stuck on a (hypersurface)

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membrane called a D-brane (D = Dirichlet boundary conditions). But the graviton, which

corresponds to a closed loop of string, can propagate in all the dimensions. It provides both

unification and quantization of gravity by assuming that there are n new spatial dimensions in

addition to the three infinite spatial dimensions we know about. And the extra space dimensions

are ≈ 10−35 m in extent. A very recent alternative version of this model is called “3-brane” theory.

In this theory, each of the n extra space dimensions is of finite extent R ≈ 2×10(32/n)–17 centimeters.

The space spanned by the new dimensions is called “the bulk.” In this theory, the particles of the

standard model live within our familiar realm of three spatial dimensions, which forms a threedimensional

(hypersurface) membrane or “3-brane” within the bulk. The propagation of

electroweak and strong nuclear forces is then confined to our 3-brane. However, at distances (r)

less than R, gravity (via gravitons) propagates in the full (3 + n)-dimensional space, whereby its

strength falls as r


with increasing separation r. When r > R, the gravitational force reverts to

its normal Newtonian r


falloff because there is no longer any extra-dimensional space for it to

spread into. If n = 1, then the size of the extra-dimension would have to be R ≈ 2×1015 cm (or

2×1010 km = 133.3 AU; 1 AU = 1.5×108

km is the mean Earth-Sun distance) in order to account

for the weakness of gravity, but an extra space dimension this large would have already made

itself obvious in the observed dynamics of the solar system. For this reason, investigators have

discounted the possibility that n = 1. If n = 2, then the size of both extra space dimensions would

have to be R ≈ 0.2 cm (or 2 mm). In any case, inconspicuous neighboring 3-branes may be

separated from the 3-brane we live on by only a fraction of a millimeter, or even much smaller

distances, across the higher-dimensional bulk. Such neighboring 3-branes may be distant folds of

our own 3-brane, with the same physics, but able to influence us across shortcuts through the

bulk. Or they may be completely separate 3-branes possessing their own fundamental laws and

parameters of nature that are completely different from our own. Several tabletop Cavendishtype

experiments are now looking for sub-millimeter deviations from Newtonian gravitation as a

first step towards verifying 3-brane theory, and other experiments are now being planned or are

already underway (Pease, 2001). At present the preliminary experimental results have been

negative for the existence of extra space dimensions, and the experimental data suggests that two

extra space dimensions are now constrained to length scales << 0.2 – 0.3 millimeters while seven

extra space dimensions can be no larger than 2 femtometers (Pease, 2001).

¾ Parallel Universes/Parallel Spaces (Everett, 1957; Wheeler, 1957, 1962; DeWitt, 1970; DeWitt

and Graham, 1973; Jammer, 1974; Davies, 1980; Wolf, 1988; Kaku, 1994; Visser, 1995 and

Section 2.1): There are only two other research tracts that are concerned with parallel universes

besides 3-brane theory. The first tract is the traversable wormhole research that was discussed in

Section 2.1. Traversable wormholes can connect many different universes in the “multiverse”

(i.e., a conglomeration of many universes), and these are called inter-universe wormholes.

However, traversable wormhole physics (a.k.a. Einstein’s General Relativity Theory) does not

provide a physical prescription for the existence and nature (i.e., fundamental parameters and

physical laws) of other putative universes. The difference between inter-universe and intrauniverse

(i.e., two distant regions of one universe are connected with each other) wormholes

arises only at the level of global geometry and global topology. Local physics near the throat of a

traversable wormhole is insensitive to issues of intra-universal or inter-universal travel. An

observer in the vicinity of the throat, while making local measurements, would not be able to tell

whether he was traveling to another universe or to a remote part of our own universe. And one

cannot rely on the topological (as opposed to geometrical) information to determine which is the

case, because topological information is not enough to uniquely characterize an inter-universe

connection. And General Relativity Theory does not fix the topology of spacetime, so we cannot

ascertain the existence of other universes. [Note: Traversable wormholes are also geometrically

possible for higher dimensional spaces.] The second tract is the “Many Worlds” interpretation of

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quantum theory. This version of quantum theory requires the simultaneous existence of an

infinite number of equally real worlds, all of which are more-or-less causally disjoint, in order to

interpret consistently the relationship between observed phenomena and observers. The theory

was proposed in an attempt to overcome a number of deep paradoxes inherent in the

interpretation of the theory of measurement and quantum theory. The Many Worlds theory

argues that quantum theory requires the existence of a “superspace” of worlds spanning the range

of all possible quantum observations (or quantum measurements). Through our acts of

measurement we are imagined to trace a path through the mesh of possible outcomes. All the

“worlds” are causally disjoint, and the uncertainty of quantum observation can be interpreted as

an artifact of our access to such a limited portion of the superspace of possible worlds. The

evolution in the superspace as a whole is entirely deterministic.

At present, none of the theoretical concepts outlined above have been brought to a level of technical

maturity, where it becomes meaningful to ascertain whether any form of e-Teleportation is theoretically

possible between extra space dimensions and different or parallel universes/spaces. However, as

mentioned in the item on parallel universes/parallel spaces, there is the exception that traversable

wormholes (three- and higher-dimensional) provide a solid physics principle for the implementation of

teleportation between parallel universes/spaces. And traversable wormholes can be devised to connect 3-

branes together. See Section 2.1 for the discussion on teleportation via traversable wormholes. Also,

Kaluza-Klein theories, superstring theories and D-brane theory all have the common feature that their

extra space dimensions are ≤ 10−35 m in extent, which makes it impossible for any useful form of

macroscopic-level teleportation to occur between space dimensions. Last, it is not yet possible to do

theoretical calculations or even experimentally verify most of these theories. Three-brane theory is the

best parallel space theory there is, with the possibility that macroscopic-level teleportation is possible

between space dimensions (only if the extra space dimension(s) has length scale(s) >> millimeters). But

this theory is still in the stage of maturing theoretically and achieving experimental verification (or

falsification). Therefore, we can go no further in this section.

4.2 Vacuum Hole Teleportation

An unusual teleportation concept has been proposed by Leshan (1999, 2002), which describes the

teleportation of objects throughout our universe by using the geometrical properties of spacetime. The

proposal posits that there is a “zero-space” that exists outside the boundary of our universe, whereby this

zero-space is a “point form” space, where the distance between any two points is always equal to zero.

Leshan also calls this space a “hole.” Further requirements and assumptions of the model are:

‰ time does not exist as a property in zero-space

‰ the cosmological principle (i.e., there are no privileged frames relative to another place or point in

the universe) requires that the boundary or border of the universe must pass through every point

of space

‰ virtual holes (or zero-space) in spacetime must exist at every point of the universe, which are also

called “vacuum holes”

‰ vacuum holes exist as virtual particles

The last item is interesting because it implicitly says that vacuum holes (a.k.a. zero-space) must also be

virtual particles, and in Section 2.2 we showed that virtual particles are a representation of the vacuum

ZPF. Therefore, this infers that vacuum holes can be considered to be vacuum zero-point fluctuations in

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Leshan’s model. Thus, a teleportation mechanism can arise in this model because distances between

zero-space and any other point in the universe are zero, so that the vacuum holes can potentially exist at

every point in the universe simultaneously. Therefore, if an object is sent “out of the universe” and into a

vacuum hole (a.k.a. zero-space), then the object can appear at random at any spacetime point in the


The mechanism for teleportation in this model is:

¾ to send an object outside of the universe by creating a closed surface (i.e., “hole sphere”), which

consists of vacuum holes, around the object;

¾ while inside the hole sphere, the object then ceases to exist because objects cannot really exist

outside of the universe;

¾ however, the object simultaneously exists at any other remote location in the universe (via the

cosmological principle) at the instant it became enclosed by the hole sphere;

¾ therefore, it has been teleported to some remote location in the universe

Leshan points out that the teleportation device must curve spacetime so that the starting and destination

points in the universe coincide, and the curved geometry must be similar to that of a black hole for an

instant, so that a channel between the two points can be formed. (This sounds suspiciously like creating a

traversable wormhole via an Einstein-Rosen bridge, which can be made traversable by perturbing the

Schwarzschild spacetime metric an infinitesimal amount.) There is no space to traverse, so therefore

there will be no passage of time during teleportation. The only expenditure of energy in this teleportation

scheme is the energy that will be needed to curve spacetime.

This teleportation concept is very convoluted. Leshan does not offer any further explanations that

are useful nor does he offer any precise technical description for the vacuum holes, and how they are to be

produced and manipulated. There is also no mathematical physics derivation published by Leshan to

support this concept. I am totally unable to evaluate this concept in the absence of a rigorous theoretical

framework. This concept is too sketchy and full of technical “holes” to seriously consider it any further

for this study. The reader should note that it has already been demonstrated that traversable wormholes

are the best physical principle available to implement teleportation between universes and extra space


4.3 Conclusion and Recommendations

At present, none of the theoretical concepts explored in this chapter have been brought to a level of

technical maturity, where it becomes meaningful to ascertain whether any form of e-Teleportation is

theoretically possible between extra space dimensions and different or parallel universes/spaces.

However, there is the exception that traversable wormholes (three- and higher-dimensional) provide a

solid physics principle for the implementation of teleportation between parallel universes/spaces. And

traversable wormholes can be devised to connect 3-branes together. Kaluza-Klein, superstring and Dbrane

theories do not allow for any useful form of macroscopic-level teleportation to occur between space

dimensions, because these theories require that the extra space dimensions be ≤ 10−35 m in extent. Last, it

is not yet possible to do theoretical calculations to make predictions or even to experimentally verify most

of these theories. Three-brane theory is the best parallel space theory there is with the possibility that

macroscopic-level teleportation is possible between space dimensions. But this theory is still in the stage

of maturing theoretically and getting experimental verification.

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  • Recommendations:

¾ The recommendations outlined in Section 2.3 are relevant to the investigation of the possibility

for e-Teleportation.

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5.1 PK Phenomenon

P-Teleportation is a form of psychokinesis (or PK) similar to telekinesis but generally used to

designate the movement of objects (called apports) through other physical objects or over great distances.

Telekinesis is a form of PK, which describes the movement of stationary objects without the use of any

known physical force. And PK is essentially the direct influence of mind on matter without any known

intermediate physical energy or instrumentation. Rigorously controlled modern scientific laboratory PK,

and related psychic (a.k.a. “psi”, “paranormal” or parapsychology), research has been performed and/or

documented by Rhine (1970), Schmidt (1974), Mitchell (1974a, b, see also the references cited therein),

Swann (1974), Puthoff and Targ (1974, 1975), Hasted et al. (1975), Targ and Puthoff (1977), Nash (1978,

see also the references cited therein), Shigemi et al. (1978), Hasted (1979), Houck (1984a), Wolman et al.

(1986, see also the references cited therein), Schmidt (1987), Alexander et al. (1990), Giroldini (1991),

Gissurarson (1992), Radin (1997, see also the references cited therein), Tart et al. (2002), Shoup (2002),

and Alexander (2003).

A well-known theoretical/experimental/operational program directed by H. E. Puthoff, R. Targ, E.

May and I. Swann was conducted at SRI International and the NSA, and sponsored at various times by

the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and the Army

Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) over more than two decades; and the program was later

carried on by E. May at SAIC (Alexander, 1980; Puthoff, 1996; Targ, 1996; Schnabel, 1997; Tart et al.,

2002). This was called the Remote Viewing program, and it was a compartmentalized special access

program possessing a variety of codenames during its 22 years of operation. Remote viewing involves

precognition and clairvoyance, and it allows a practitioner to acquire information irrespective of

intervening distance or time. The Remote Viewing program ended in 1994 and President W. J. Clinton

officially declassified it in 1995. The reader should note that the very first U. S. military-intelligence

R&D programs on psi, PK and mind control were conducted by H. K. (Andrija) Puharich, M.D., L.L.D

during his military service at the Army Chemical and Biological Warfare Center at Fort Detrick,

Maryland in the 1940s-50s. Puharich had an interest in clairvoyance and PK, and dabbled in theories for

electronically and pharmaceutically enhancing and synthesizing psychic abilities. While in the Army,

Puharich took part in a variety of parapsychology experiments, and he lectured Army, Air Force and

Navy groups on possibilities for mind warfare. He was a recognized expert in hypnotism and


PK phenomenon was also explored in the Remote Viewing program. Col. J. B. Alexander (USA ret.)

credits professional aerospace engineer Jack Houck for “capturing PK phenomenon and transitioning it

into an observable form” (Houck, 1982, 1984a, b; Alexander et al., 1990; Alexander, 2003). During the

past three decades, Houck (along with Alexander) held a number of PK sessions, whereby attendees are

taught the PK induction process, and initiate their own PK events using various metal specimens (forks,

spoons, etc.). Individuals were able to completely bend or contort their metal specimens with no physical

force being applied whatsoever. Numerous government science advisors and senior military officials

took part in and/or witnessed these events, which took place at the Pentagon, at officers’ or scientists’

homes, and at one quarterly INSCOM retreat attended by the commanding general and a group of

colonels and generals commanding INSCOM units around the globe. Spontaneous deformation of the

metal specimens was observed at the PK session conducted during the INSCOM retreat, causing a great

deal of excitement among those present. Other notable trained observers were also present at this session,

and they critically reviewed the events. Psychic Uri Geller (1975) is the original model for demonstrating

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PK metal bending. During a talk that he gave at the U.S. Capitol building, Uri caused a spoon to curve

upward with no force applied, and then the spoon continued to bend after he put it back down and

continued with his talk (Alexander, 1996). Jack Houck continues doing extensive experimental work and

data collection on micro- and macro-PK phenomena. Scientifically controlled PK experiments at the

Princeton University Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory were conducted by Robert Jahn (Dean

Emeritus of the School of Engineering), who reported that repeatedly consistent results in mentally

affecting material substances has been demonstrated in the lab (Jahn and Dunne, 1987). In the 1980s,

Jahn attended a meeting on the PK topic at the Naval Research Laboratory, and warned that foreign

adversaries could exploit micro- or macro-PK to induce U.S. military fighter pilots to lose control of their

aircraft and crash.

Very early investigations of, and experiments on, p-Teleportation occurred during the 19th and early

20th centuries. Many cases that were studied, and the experiments that were performed, were undoubtedly

due to fraud, and few experiments have occurred under controlled conditions during that period.

However, most of the credible, scientific reports of p-Teleportation phenomenon and related (controlled)

experiments occurred in the late 20th century (see for example, Alexander et al., 1990; Radin, 1997).

Some of that scientific work involved the investigation of Uri Geller and a variety of other recurrent

spontaneous PK phenomena (Hasted et al., 1975; Puthoff and Targ, 1975; Targ and Puthoff, 1977; Nash,

1978; Wolman et al., 1986). Psychics Uri Geller (1975) and Ray Stanford (1974) claimed to have been

teleported on several occasions. Most claimed instances of human teleportation of the body from one

place to another have been unwitnessed. There are also a small number of credible reports of individuals

who reported being teleported to/from UFOs during a UFO close encounter, which were scientifically

investigated (Vallee, 1988, 1990, 1997). But there are a larger number of such reports that are anecdotal,

whereby the witness data tends to be unreliable. However, we will confine our discussion to the

controlled laboratory experiments that have been performed and reported.

One of the more interesting examples of controlled experiments with Uri Geller was one in which he

was able to cause a part of a vanadium carbide crystal to vanish (Hasted et al., 1975). The crystal was

encapsulated so it could not be touched, and it was placed in such a way that it could not be switched with

another crystal by sleight of hand. A more spectacular series of rigorously controlled (and repeatable!)

laboratory experiments occurred in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). In September 1981, an

extraordinary paper was published in the PRC in the journal Ziran Zazhi (transl.: Nature Journal), and this

paper was entitled, “Some Experiments on the Transfer of Objects Performed by Unusual Abilities of the

Human Body” (Shuhuang et al., 1981). The paper reported that gifted children were able to cause the

apparent teleportation of small objects (radio micro-transmitters, photosensitive paper, mechanical

watches, horseflies, other insects, etc.) from one location to another (that was meters away) without them

ever touching the objects beforehand. The experiments were operated under exceptionally wellcontrolled

conditions (both blind and double-blind). The researchers involved included not only

observers from various PRC colleges and medical research institutes, but also representatives from the

PRC National Defense Science Commission. Because of the involvement of the latter, it was deemed

necessary that an unclassified Intelligence Information Report be prepared by the DIA (see Shuhuang et

al., 1981), which included a detailed English translation of the article.

Additional research carried out by the Aerospace Medicine Engineering Institute in Beijing was

reported in the July 1990 issue of the Chinese Journal of Somatic Science (Kongzhi et al., 1990; Jinggen

et al., 1990; Banghui, 1990), which was also translated into English by the DIA. Reported in several

articles are experiments involving the videotaping and high-speed photography of the transfer of test

specimens (nuts, bundles of matches, pills, nails, thread, photosensitive paper, chemically treated paper,

sponges dipped in FeCl3, etc.) through the walls of sealed paper envelopes, double layered KCNS type

paper bags, sealed glass bottles and tubes with sealed caps, and sealed plastic film canisters without the

walls of any of these containers being breached. All of the Chinese experiments reported using gifted

children and young adults, who possessed well-known extraordinary PK ability, to cause the teleportation

of the various test specimens. In all the experimental cases that were reported, the test specimens that

were teleported were completely unaltered or unchanged from their initial state, even the insects were

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unaffected by being teleported. The experiments were well controlled, scientifically recorded, and the

experimental results were always repeatable.

The Chinese papers are all extremely interesting and very well written, and they show photographs

and schematic diagrams of the various experimental setups. The experimental protocols were explained

in lengthy detail, and thorough data and statistical analysis were presented in the results. The combined

results from the several Chinese experiments showed that:

¾ different research groups designed different experimental protocols, used different gifted

psychics, used different sealed containers, and used different test specimens (live insects, bulk

inanimate objects, and even radio micro-transmitters were used to track the location of the

specimens) that were to be teleported;

¾ the time required for the teleportation of test specimens through various barriers was anywhere

from a fraction of a second to several minutes, and this was not dependent on the test specimen

that was used, the sealed container that was used (or its barrier thickness), which experimental

protocol was used, or which psychic was being used

¾ the high-speed photography/videotaping recorded in one series of experiments that test specimens

would physically “meld” or blend with the walls of sealed containers; and recorded in a different

series of experiments that test specimens would simply disappear from inside the container only

to reappear at another location (after seconds to several minutes of time transpired), such that the

test specimen did not actually undergo total material disintegration/reintegration during

teleportation – this data is important, because without the aid of electronic monitoring

instruments, the average person’s sensory organs and usual methods of detection are temporarily

unable to perceive the test specimen’s (ambiguous) existence during the teleportation process;

¾ the radio micro-transmitter used as a test specimen in one series of experiments (Shuhuang et al.,

1981) transmitted a radio signal to several stationary electronic instruments/receivers, so that the

specimen could be tracked and monitored (via signal amplitude and frequency measurements)

during the teleportation process; the experimenters discovered that there was large fluctuations in

the intensity (in both amplitude and frequency) of the monitored signal to the effect that it would

either completely disappear or become extremely weak (to the extent that the monitoring

instruments could scarcely detect it) – it was discovered that there was a definite correlation

between the change in strength (i.e., radical frequency shifts were observed) of the monitored

radio signal and the teleportation of the test specimen, such that the weak or absent signal

indicated that the specimen was “nonexistent” (or in an altered physical state) during teleportation

(note: the monitored signal amplitude and frequency of the micro-transmitter specimen were

stable before and after teleportation);

¾ before and after “passing through the container wall/barrier”, the test specimen and the

container’s wall/barrier are both complete solid objects;

¾ the gifted psychics were never allowed to see (they were blindfolded in many experiments) or

touch each of the test specimens or the sealed containers before and after experiments were

conducted, and only the experimenters touched the specimens and containers (using both blind

and double-blind protocols);

¾ the experimental results were all repeatable

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¾ the conditions for fraud and sleight of hand were totally eliminated, and multiple independent

outside witnesses (technical and military-intelligence experts) were present at all times to ensure

total fidelity of the experiments

The experimental radio micro-transmitter and high-speed photography/videotaping data offer an

important clue on what the teleportation mechanism is, and this will be discussed further in Section 5.1.1.

The Chinese were unable to offer any significant physics hypothesis that could explain their results.

Some researchers stated that it is necessary to invoke a new physics, which somehow unifies the human

consciousness (i.e., physics of consciousness) with quantum and spacetime physics, in order to

understand p-Teleportation and related PK phenomena. The researchers were amazed by their repeated

results, and were barely able to fathom the altered “state of being” that test specimens underwent during


It is also important to point out that during the Cold War the DIA produced three (now declassified)

reports on the parapsychology research of the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pack allies (LaMothe, 1972;

Maire and LaMothe, 1975; DIA Report, 1978; other related studies were reported by Groller, 1986,

1987). The purpose of the reports was to collate and summarize collected intelligence, describe in great

detail, and assess the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact R&D on parapsychology and paraphysics. The

reports outlined the history of pre-revolutionary (Czarist) Russian, and WWII and post-WWII era Soviet

R&D on psychotronics, human mind/behavior control, and the entire spectrum of parapsychology. The

Soviet information also mentions the psychotronic/parapsychology R&D materials that Soviet military

forces took from various Nazi research centers in and around Germany at the end of WWII. The entire

spectrum of parapsychology phenomena was explored by the Soviets, which resulted in the generation of

a wealth of experimental data and related scientific research literature. One DIA report noted that there

was an East versus West science debate in the Soviet literature over whether paranormal phenomenon and

related experimental data was real or even scientifically sound in comparison to western scientific

practice and philosophy. Another DIA report lists the names and affiliations of all the researchers, as well

as the names of the various Soviet and Warsaw Pact research centers, that were involved. Also, Pratt

(1986) reviews and summarizes the history of Soviet psychotronics research.

The U.S. military-intelligence establishment was concerned with the possibility that the Soviets and

their Warsaw Pact allies were conducting psychotronics and mind control R&D in order to discover how

to exploit and control powerful phenomena that could be used against the U.S. and its allies. LaMothe

(1972) chronicled how the Soviets had been researching methods of influencing human behavior for over

sixty years. The Soviets and their allies extensively explored an influence technology that they called

“controlled offensive behavior”, which is defined as “research on human vulnerability as it applies to

methods of influencing or altering human behavior” (LaMothe, 1972). Also, LaMothe (1972) describes

the revolutionary techniques the Soviets studied to influence human behavior, which included: sound,

light, color, odors, sensory deprivation, sleep, electromagnetic fields, biochemicals, autosuggestion,

hypnosis, and parapsychology phenomena (such as psychokinesis, telekinesis, extrasensory perceptionESP,

astral projection, clairvoyance, precognition, and dream state, etc.). The LaMothe (1972) report

became an aid in the development of countermeasures for the protection of U.S. and/or allied personnel.

Psychotronics is the general term that was used in the former Soviet Union/Warsaw Pact countries to

categorize many psychic phenomena undergoing scientific research. The conclusions that were reached

in the DIA reports are that within the category of psychotronics, the Soviets identified two discrete skills

(LaMothe, 1972):

¾ bioenergetics: those phenomena associated with the production of objectively detectable effects

such as psychokinesis, telekinesis, levitation effects, transformations of energy, i.e. the altering or

affecting of matter

¾ bioinformation: those phenomena associated with the obtaining of information through means

other than the normal sensory channels (i.e., ESP), such as telepathy, precognition, and

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clairvoyance, i.e., using the mind to tap into the thoughts of others or to acquire present or future

information about objective events in the world

These phenomena involve using the mind and/or some “field” of the body to affect other minds and

inanimate objects irrespective of intervening distance or elapsed time, and without engaging any

conventional tools. Bioenergetics and bioinformation are two classifications that form a single branch of

science the Soviets preferred to call biocommunications. Soviet biocommunications research is primarily

concerned with exploring the existence of a definite group of natural phenomena controlled by laws that

are not based on any known (energetic) influence. The types of biocommunication (a.k.a. psychotronics)

phenomena includes special sensory biophysical activities, brain and mind control, telepathic

communications or bioinformation transceiving, bioluminescent and bioenergetic emissions, and the

effects of altered states of consciousness on the human psyche. Psychotronics and remote viewing

provide capabilities that have obvious intelligence applications. The Soviets and their Warsaw Pact allies

invested millions of dollars in psychotronics R&D because they understood this, and saw the potential

payoff for military and intelligence applications.

The U.S. response to Soviet psychotronics R&D programs was the Remote Viewing program. In

addition, the U.S. Army began the JEDI Project in 1983, which sought to increase human potential using

teachable models of behavioral/physical excellent by unconventional means (Alexander et al., 1990). The

JEDI Project was essentially a human-performance modeling experiment based on neuro-linguistic

programming (NLP) skills, whereby advanced influence technologies to model excellence in human

performance was used. The program ran under the auspices of the Army INSCOM and the

Organizational Effectiveness School, and was sponsored by a U.S. government interagency task force.

Finally, it should be pointed out that the program had successfully trained several hundred people,

including members of Congress (such as Al Gore, Jr. and Tom Downey), before being terminated.

There is a wealth of factual scientific research data from around the world attesting to the physical

reality of p-Teleportation and related anomalous psi phenomena (Mitchell, 1974b; Targ and Puthoff,

1977; Nash, 1978; Radin, 1997; Tart et al., 2002). The skeptical reader should not be so quick to dismiss

the subject matter in this chapter, because one must remain open-minded about this subject and consider

p-Teleportation as worthy of further scientific exploration. The psychotronics topic is controversial

within the western scientific community. The debate among scientists and scientific philosophers is

highly charged at times, and becomes acrimonious to the point where reputable skeptical scientists cease

being impartial by refusing to examine the experimental data or theories, and they prefer to bypass

rational discourse by engaging in ad hominem attacks and irrational “armchair” arguments.

P-Teleportation and related phenomena are truly anomalous, and they challenge accepted modern

scientific paradigm. Lightman and Gingerich (1991) wrote, “Scientists are reluctant to change paradigms

for the purely psychological reasons that the familiar is often more comfortable than the unfamiliar and

that inconsistencies in belief are uncomfortable.” And theories change over time when anomalies enter

the picture. Anomalies are particularly helpful for they point to the inadequacies of an old model and

point the way to a new one. Anomalous scientific facts are unexpected and difficult to explain within an

existing conceptual framework. Kuhn (1970) describes scientific discovery as a complex process, in

which an anomalous fact of nature is recognized, and then followed by a change in conceptual framework

(i.e., paradigm) that makes the new fact no longer an anomaly. Kuhn stated that, “Discovery commences

with the awareness of anomaly, that is, with the recognition that nature has somehow violated the preinduced

expectations that govern normal science.” This statement neatly describes exactly what

transpired during the historical revolution that took place in physics between the classical

mechanics/electrodynamics age in the 19th century and the quantum/atomic/nuclear/relativistic age in the

20th century. And this isn’t the only time in human history that scientific paradigms have dramatically

changed. The discovery of p-Teleportation already commenced in the 20th century, so let us continue the

discovery and create a new physics paradigm for the 21st century.

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5.1.1 Hypothesis Based on Mathematical Geometry

The Chinese researchers reported in their teleportation experiments that high-speed

photography/videotaping recorded test specimens physically “melding” or blending with the walls of

sealed containers, and in a different series of experiments the test specimens would simply disappear from

inside the container only to reappear at another location (after seconds to several minutes of time

transpired). They also reported in the series of radio micro-transmitter experiments that there were large

fluctuations in the intensity (in both amplitude and frequency) of the monitored signal to the effect that it

would either completely disappear or become extremely weak (to the extent that the monitoring

instruments could scarcely detect it); and they discovered that there was a definite correlation between the

change in strength (i.e., radical frequency shifts were observed) of the monitored radio signal and the

teleportation of the radio micro-transmitter, such that the weak or absent signal indicated that the

specimen was “nonexistent” (or in an altered physical state) during teleportation. This data is important

because without the aid of electronic monitoring instruments, the average person’s sensory organs and

usual methods of detection are temporarily unable to perceive the test specimen’s (ambiguous) existence

during the teleportation process. This data offers an important clue on what the teleportation mechanism


It is beyond the scope of this study to propose a complete self-consistent physics theory of

consciousness/mind, which explains how the mind can activate p-Teleportation and related psychotronics

phenomena. This topic has been under study in recent decades by a legion of medical science, bio- and

neuro-physiology, psychology, mathematics, philosophy, and physics experts. Many different theories

with varying degree of theoretical maturity and self-consistency have been proposed over the years, and

most of them have not yet been experimentally tested for various reasons. However, some first-order

experimental work has been done (Mitchell, 1974b; Targ and Puthoff, 1977; Wolman et al., 1986; Radin,

1997; Tart et al., 2002). Ironically, quantum mechanics theory, and the related physics of quantum

entanglement and teleportation, has become the primary focus of all of the physics theories of

consciousness/psychotronics that have been recently proposed (see for example, Shan, 2003). Wolman et

  1. (1986) and Radin (1997) provide a review and discussion on recent theories and experiments that are

based on quantum physics theory (see also, Walker, 1974; Targ and Puthoff, 1977; Mitchell, 1999, and

the references cited therein; Tart et al., 2002). It appears that the physics of q-Teleportation (Chapter 3)

has tremendous relevance to the physics of p-Teleportation and psychotronics.

In the following I propose a parsimonious first-order hypothesis that can explain the gross features of

both the Chinese p-Teleportation data and the other reported p-Teleportation phenomena. But I will

refrain from including any role that might be played by quantum phenomena since the scientific

community has not yet settled that particular issue. (However, it is apparent that quantum theory and

quantum phenomena will likely play a key role in a formal physics theory of PK and psychotronics.)

First-Order Hypothesis:

‰ Fact 1: The mature discipline of mathematical geometry developed the properties of higher

dimensional spaces (Reichenbach, 1957; Manning, 1977; Rucker, 1977). An example of one

such property that is of relevance to the hypothesis: One can visualize a four-dimensional world

by using color as the 4th dimension. We can think of a three-dimensional world, whereby objects

pass through one another if their colors (i.e., four-dimensional locations) are different

(Reichenbach, 1957). For example, color can be used as a 4th dimension to see how a knot in

three-dimensions can be untied in a 4th spatial dimension without moving the ends of the cord.

That is because a cord cannot stay knotted in four-dimensional space, because the extra degree of

freedom will cause any knot to slip through itself. Two other interesting and relevant examples

are that the links of a chain may be separated unbroken in the 4th dimension, and a flexible sphere

may be turned inside out without tearing in the 4th dimension (Manning, 1977; Rucker, 1977).

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‰ Proposition 1 and Fact 2: It has been proposed that our space actually possesses a slight fourdimensional

hyperthickness, so that the ultimate components of our nervous system are actually

higher dimensional, thus enabling the human mind/brain to imagine four-dimensional space

(Hinton, 1888, 1904; Rucker, 1977). If this is the case, then the three-dimensional nets of

neurons that code thoughts in our brain may form four-dimensional patterns to achieve fourdimensional

thought. The “bulk” space in 3-brane theory (see Section 4.1), and experimental

data from the Remote Viewing program (see Section 5.1), provide support for this concept. Can

we see into the 4th dimension and have four-dimensional thoughts? Yes, we can. Proof (see,

Rucker, 1977, 1984): If you look at a Necker cube for a while, it spontaneously turns into its

mirror image and back again. If you watch it do this often enough, the twinkling sort of motion

from one state to the other begins to seem like a continuous motion. But this motion can only be

continuous if it is a rotation in four-dimensional space. The mathematician August F. Möbius

discovered in 1827 that it is in fact possible to turn a three-dimensional solid object into its mirror

image by an appropriate rotation through four-dimensional space (a.k.a. hyperspace rotation).

Thus, it is actually possible for our minds to perform such a rotation. Therefore, we can actually

produce four-dimensional phenomenon in our minds, so our consciousness is four-dimensional.

Rucker (1984) shows another dramatic example of being able to see into the 4th dimension via a


‰ Fact 3: Another property of higher dimensional geometry (Reichenbach, 1957; Rucker, 1977,

1984) is that one can move through solid three-dimensional obstacles without penetrating them

by passing in the direction of the 4th (spatial) dimension. The 4th dimension is perpendicular to all

of our normal three-dimensional space directions, and so our three-dimensional enclosures have

no walls against this direction.

‰ Conclusion and Hypothesis: Therefore, the results of the Chinese p-Teleportation experiments

can simply be explained as a human consciousness phenomenon that somehow acts to move or

rotate test specimens through a 4th spatial dimension, so that the specimens are able to penetrate

the solid walls/barriers of their containers without physically breaching them. No real

dematerialization/rematerialization of the specimens takes place. The intensity fluctuations of the

radio micro-transmitter specimen’s electromagnetic signal, and the apparent blending of the other

specimens with the walls of their containers, represent the passage of the specimens through a 4th

spatial dimension. During teleportation the radio signals emitted by the micro-transmitter became

weak/non-existent and fluctuated, because they were spreading out into the 4th dimension and

became undetectable in our three-dimensional space. The weak signals that were (“barely”)

detected represent the leakage of a portion of the radio signal back into our three-dimensional

space from the 4th dimension during teleportation. The observed blending of the other specimens

with the walls of their containers is how the movement/rotation of the specimens through the 4th

dimension was visually interpreted by the mind (along the lines of the Necker cube or Neck-ACube


5.2 Conclusion and Recommendations

We will need a physics theory of consciousness and psychotronics, along with more experimental

data, in order to test the hypothesis in Section 5.1.1 and discover the physical mechanisms that lay behind

the psychotronic manipulation of matter. P-Teleportation, if verified, would represent a phenomenon that

could offer potential high-payoff military, intelligence and commercial applications. This phenomenon

could generate a dramatic revolution in technology, which would result from a dramatic paradigm shift in

science. Anomalies are the key to all paradigm shifts!

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  • Recommendations:

¾ There are numerous supporters within the U.S. military establishment who comprehend the

significance of remote viewing and PK phenomenon, and believe that they could have strategic

implications. Bremseth (2001), a U.S. Navy SEAL, attended the Marine War College and studied

the Remote Viewing program, and interviewed many of the former program participants.

Bremseth then wrote his thesis on the topic, and concluded that the evidence supported continued

research and applications of remote viewing. A research program improving on and expanding,

or implementing novel variations of, the Chinese and Uri Geller-type experiments should be

conducted in order to generate p-Teleportation phenomenon in the lab. The performances and

characteristics of p-Teleportation need to be delineated in order to develop a refined hypothesis.

Such a program should be designed so that an operational model for p-Teleportation can be

developed and implemented as a prototype. An experimental program similar in fashion to the

Remote Viewing program should be funded at $900,000 – 1,000,000 per year in parallel with a

theoretical program funded at $500,000 per year for an initial five-year duration. The role of

quantum physics theory and related quantum phenomena (i.e., entanglement and teleportation) in

p-Teleportation and psychotronics should be explored in this program (see for example, the

Biological Quantum Teleportation recommendation in Section 3.3). An experiment definition

study should be conducted first to identify and propose the best experiments for this program,

which should be funded at $80,000 for one year.

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